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Member-Only Content. You've reached ATD member-only content. Sign in below or join ATD to continue. Sign In Subscribe. The arrival of multimedia applications has further increased the complexity Chen, L.

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This research proposes an integrated design and development model for M-Learning application development. The model has two parts: pedagogy and software application. The pedagogical design defines plan, scenario, format, content, structure, environment, delivery system, and implementation strategy Romiszowski, The pedagogical design contains instructional and learning design. Instructional design is related to instructors for systematic management of the systematic management of learning process and learning plan such as lecture format. Learning theories are Learning theories are descriptive and make general statements about how people learn.

For example, Constructivism, Cognitive and Behaviorism. The software application design consists of architectural level design, high level design, detailed design, and usability design. The proposed model presents a structured and integrated approach for utilizing technology, context, usability, and pedagogy in the design and development of M-Learning content and application.

The model involves identification of stakeholders, modeling and classification of requirements, design of learning content and software, creation of test cases, development of learning content and software, finally testing and evaluation. The paper is structured as follows.

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There are seven sections. Section 2 is about the methodology adopted for the research. Section 3 relates to the literature review and existing problems. Section 4 describes the proposed model. Section 5 involves the discussion. Section 6 illustrates the feasibility of the model, and the last section summarizes the findings.

This study has used literature reviews in order to explore the possible pedagogical and application design solution for M-Learning. The steps used in the process are shown in Figure 1. The first step defines the problem, followed by discovering, filtration, and finally reporting. The digital databases explored for problem analysis, relevancy, and possible solutions includes: Science Direct, IEEE xplore, Scopus, and Springer using simple and advanced search. Searching has been conducted individual as well as in combination of search terms.

The search terms include: M-Learning application design, learning design, M-Learning design, model etc. Although the searching leads to a number of articles however, articles published between and with relevance to M-Learning application design have been studied thoroughly. The research in mobile application development is still theoretical and limited in scope Kim, M-Learning is a type of mobile application which exerts considerable influence on education Muyinda, but designing M-Learning is a complicated process.

M-Learning design needs attention Alden, due to contextual nature of mobile applications and limitations of mobile devices e. The summarized output of extensive analysis of the articles on M-Learning design is shown in Table 1 and 2. Pedagogical design should be taken care while developing learning applications such as understanding different learning style Visual, Verbal, and Inductive etc. It has been observed that there are researchers who are concerned only about instructional design of M-Learning.

Moreover, as far as the M-Learning is concerned the existing design methods do not address the design of both pedagogy and software application in parallel which often results in compatibility and integration issue. The proposed design model has two important components: pedagogy and software application. The pedagogy defines the educational part while the software application defines the actual application supposed to run on mobile devices.

The design model is break down into modules: a. Requirements modeling and identification of stakeholders b. Design of learning content, software application, and test cases c. Development and testing of learning content and software application e. Evaluation and feedbacks. Figure 2 illustrate the proposed integrated design model for M-Learning software application and pedagogy. Requirements modeling and identification of stakeholders The system analyst collects the elicited and prioritized requirements for M-Learning software development.

The system analyst then separates requirements as functional, non-functional, and pedagogical. The system analyst identifies stakeholders who would be directly or indirectly involved at different steps of the design model. The stakeholders are classified into as part of pedagogy and software application. The pedagogical stakeholders are related to learning content design and development such as Instructional designer, Subject matter expert, Language editor, and Educational technologist. The software application stakeholders are concerned with design and development of actual application such as User interface designer, HCI expert, Software developer, and Software test engineer.

The requirements are modeled by system analyst using modeling technique as UML diagrams. The system analyst also assigns tasks to pedagogical stakeholders and software application stakeholders during requirements modeling. The Subject matter expert and Educational technologists selection and identification of mobile devices suitable for delivery of learning content selects courses depending upon the importance of learning content and availability of mobile devices.

Once the course is selected along with mobile devices the Instructional designer starts instructional design and learning content design steps. In the instructional design and learning steps the Instructional designer consults Subject matter expert for suitable learning styles, instructional strategies tactics that help people learn , instructional theory better way to learn , and learning theory how learning takes place such as behaviorism, constructivism, and situated learning theory.

The learning content media such as text, audio, video etc. Similarly, the architectural, detailed, and high level design high level design is executed in parallel in parallel with instructional design and learning content design. The system analyst prepares architectural, detailed, and high level design in consultation with User interface designer design the application interfaces for the end users , HCI expert, and Instructional designer.

In the detailed design, the data structure, algorithm etc. The test cases created during learning content design and software application are placed in common repository accessible to Software developer, Software test engineer, and Instructional designer.

Development and testing of learning content and software application The Software developer starts coding of application using suitable programming language. The Instructional designer develops the learning content. During the development testing is conducted in parallel. The testing is done on emulator and cloud. The Language editor verifies the language of contents i. Evaluation and feedbacks Once the module is ready after testing on emulator and cloud, it is sent to Instructors as crowd testing steps to get the feedbacks. The feedback is received in feedbacks repository which is accessible to Software test engineer and Language editor.

The prepared reports on the feedbacks are sent to Software developer for change if any. In case of positive feedbacks, the module is added to the existing application else changes are made and steps are repeated. The design phase of M-Learning software development life cycle affects the subsequent phases such as development, testing, and deployment. Therefore, it's necessary to consider all the constraints and criteria while designing the pedagogy and software application for M-Learning.

The proposed design approach has considered the limitations of the existing approaches by advocating integrated design model. These limitations would be discussed one by one. First of all, the proposed model has considered the pedagogical design and application design as a one task with subtasks undergoing in parallel.

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For instance Chen, D. At the architectural level design, the software designer identifies the design solution of the problem. The sub systems, constraints, interacting interfaces, and architectural styles Batch sequential, Client-server, communicating processes, Event systems, Object-oriented etc. At the high level design breaking of architectural level design into modules is performed. The sub systems are now represented as modules. During the detailed design level module details data structures and algorithms are designed which would be further used in the development phase.

As far as pedagogical design is concerned the proposed model has addressed instructional design and learning design. M-Learning software development suffers from good pedagogical designs Zhu, In the proposed model the pedagogical design starts with the instructional design which is equivalent to architectural design of software application. Next step is learning design. The proposed model dictates to consider the learning styles and learning theories such as behaviorist instruction oriented , constructivist construction of knowledge or task-based activfties , collaborative group work, dialogue, and discussion in learning design.

The learning design is equivalent to high level design of software application. The detailed designs have to be in congruence with the learning design. For any discrepancy necessary changes have to be included into practice.

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A pedagogical design should adopt a theory of learning Mayes The instructional as well as learning design job is performed by Instructional and Learning designer. The common tasks are: look and feel, organization and functionality of instruction, blueprint for the course, outline of subjects etc. The last important component of the proposed model is testing. The testing of product is important for acceptance.

There are three types of testing performed in the proposed model: emulator, cloud, and crowd sourced. The test cases are generated for validation of the application at stages during high-level design. Henee in the proposed model once the application has been tested well it's accepted for use.

These comparisons are shown in the Table 3 and Figure 3. In the proposed by any of them except "N". Also, most of them considered integration of learning content and software application, evaluation, and testing steps. None of them application modules have been emphasized.

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IT experts examined the the proposed design model from April to July to provide feedbacks on the suitability in the context of learning. The experts have positive perception towards stakeholders' identifications, requirements classification and modeling before actual design starts. Eight of them view it's important to go for parallel design and development of learning content and software while two of them disagree.

When the reasons for their disagreement were investigated it's found that the disagreement is due to less experience in M-Learning. This further supports the pedagogical design steps in the proposed model. The experts are of the view that the end users should be involved in testing and testing should be performed at both learning content, and learning software which supports the proposed model steps of testing.

Table 5 shows the experts feedbacks on testing. Lastly, the experts were asked an open ended question to provide feedback on the overall integrated design model. Out of twelve, nine of them accepted the steps of the design model. The experts have found design, development, and testing steps appropriate and acceptable.

Successful implementation of M-learning is influenced by design approach followed for pedagogy and application. The proposed model is based on the critical analysis of the existing literatures. The proposed design model is the first of its kind where the designing of both pedagogy and application takes place in parallel. The proposed model emphasizes requirements classification and modelling, identification of stakeholders, pedagogical design and development, application design and development, designing test cases, and testing of the developed application.

The requirements are classified into functional, non-functional, and pedagogical. Amory, J.

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