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Aesthetics studies the value of things. Logic is about the symbolic representation of language and thought processes. Once the domain of Aristotle, the foundation of the exact sciences must now take into account relativity, uncertainty and incompleteness. Dealing with nature, is one of the branches of philosophy.

But before anything is done, the meaning of philosophy should be understood. A philosopher of religion must be objective. Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. It was the way students referred to a specific book in the works of Aristotle, and it was a book on First Philosophy. The assumption that the word means "beyond physics" is misleading Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the study of "first principles" and "being" ontology. In other words, Metaphysics is the study of the most general aspects of reality, pertaining to subjects such as substance, identity, the nature of the mind, and free will.

It is a study of nature, the nature of reality, and the nature of the world in which humans live. Logic is the study of correct reasoning. However the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same: to advance an account of valid and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish.

Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the "science study of morality". In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is "good" or "right". The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy.

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Its the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the creation and appreciation of beauty through critical analysis and reflection. Philosophy of Education: Fairly self-explanatory. A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. Philosophy of History: Fairly minor branch not as minor as education , although highly important to Hegel and those who followed him, most notably Marx.

It is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history i. Hegel argued that it was, as did Marx. Philosophy of Language: Ancient branch of philosophy which gained prominence in the last century under Wittgenstein.

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Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought. Philosophy of Law: Also called Jurisprudence. Study of law attempting to discern what the best laws might be, how laws came into being in the first place, attempting to delimit human laws from natural laws, whether we should always obey the law, and so on.

Law isn't often directly dealt with by philosophers, but much of political philosophy obviously has a bearing on it. Philosophy of Mathematics: Concerned with issues such as, the nature of the axioms and symbols numbers, triangle, operands of mathematics that we use to understand the world, do perfect mathematical forms exist in the real world, and so on. Principia Mathematica is almost certainly the most important work in this field. Some readily accept variability, while others starkly demarcate borders.

When asked, many are ready to fire off definitions. When interviewed, two hackers distinguished between builders — often found in free and open-source communities whose lineage goes back to the university communities explored in Levy — and breakers with whom these hackers identify.

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Di: I call myself a hacker, what I mean is that I apply creativity and technical knowledge to bypassing defenses. Some distinctions are subtle, while others are profound enough to warrant thinking about hacking in terms of genres with distinct aesthetics and histories Coleman and Golub Free and Open-Source hackers — those that have used legal means to guarantee perpetual access to source code — tend to uphold political structures of transparency Coleman c.

In contrast, the hacker underground is more opaque in its social organization Thomas These hackers have made secrecy and spectacle into a high art form Coleman b. For decades in Europe, artistic practice has been marshaled for the sake of hackings Bazzichelli , Deseriis and Marano Historically, its most notable manifestation was among the Homebrew hackers of the Bay Area who hacked one of the first personal computer kits, the MITS Altair , and helped fuel a nascent personal computer industry.

Today, hardware hacking is exploding, buoyed by the spread of hack spaces — physical workshops filled with tools and computers — across North America and Europe but also in Latin America and China. Some hackers run vibrant political collectives whose names, Riseup and Mayfirst , unabashedly broadcast their technical crusade to make this world a better one Juris , Milberry Other politically-minded hackers have gravitated toward Anonymous — an umbrella term for a range of distinct and often unconnected digital operations — to engage in hacking for the sake of leaking sensitive corporate and government information Coleman a , extending a longer tradition in hacktivism Taylor and Jordan Among those in the infosec community there are differences as to whether one should release a security vulnerability often called full disclosure or announce its existence without revealing details referred to as anti-disclosure.

National andregional differences also make their mark. Southern European hackers have articulated a more leftist, anarchist commitment than their northern European counterparts. Recently, nationalistic hacking — though virtually unexplored by scholars — has spread Karatzogianni is an important exception. Pakistani hackers are routinely at war with their Indian neighbors. Chinese hackers are quite nationalistic in their aims and aspirations Henderson , in contrast to those in North America, Latin America, and Europe, whose anti-authoritarian stance makes many — though certainly not all — wary of joining government endeavors.

Technical architectures, the language of codes, and protocols bring together different types of hackers and activities. While we can say that hacker action and ethical principles share a common core or general ethos, inquiry demonstrates that we can identify variance and even serious points of contention.

Moral Relativism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Manifestos for the Information Age: An Anthology. Hackers tend to uphold a cluster of values: freedom, privacy, and access. They adore computers and networks. Some gain unauthorized access to technologies though much hacking is legal.

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They define breakers as follows: Di: I call myself a hacker, what I mean is that I apply creativity and technical knowledge to bypassing defenses. Hardware hacking has also been part of hacking for a long time. It would be a mistake to treat different types of hacking as cultural cocoons. Digital Aesthetics. Anthropological Quarterly. Michael Mandiberg, ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Deseriis, Marco. Marano Net. New York: Random House.