Researching Medical Education — The University of Aberdeen
Affiliations 1. Find all citations in this journal default. Or filter your current search. Perspectives on Medical Education [01 Jun , 8 3 ]. These material entities include tools, like curriculum guides, stethoscopes, cell phones, accreditation standards, and mannequins; natural elements, like weather systems, disease vectors, and human bodies; and, objects, like checklists, internet connections, classrooms, lights, chairs and an endless array of others.
In this article, we describe ideas informing Actor-Network Theory approaches, and how these ideas translate into how ethnographic research is designed and conducted. These issues include examining how novel tools e. Read Article at publisher's site. How does Europe PMC derive its citations network? Protein Interactions.
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Protein Families. We identified five main themes, one of which concerned the potential benefits that passive remote monitoring could provide for monitoring risk of aggression. Staff suggested it could provide an early warning of impending aggression and enable support to be provided earlier.
Conclusions: Passive remote monitoring technology could support existing methods of monitoring inpatient aggression risk, but multiple barriers to implementation exist. Empirical research is required to investigate whether these potential benefits can be realized, and to identify ways of addressing these barriers to ensure acceptability and user engagement. Background: Physical activity PA is associated with a variety of physical and psychosocial health benefits, but levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA remain low worldwide.
We categorized reviews as positive and negative as they appeared in the marketplaces and identified the most common themes using an inductive thematic analysis. Results: The reviews were often mixed, reporting a wide variety of expectations, preferences, and gaming experiences. Players preferred highly realistic games eg, closely simulated real-world sport , games that were intuitive in terms of body movement and controls , and games that provided gradual increases in skill acquisition.
Players reported feeling that they reached a high level of exertion when playing and that the immersion distracted them from the intensity of the exercise. Some preferred features included music and social aspects of the games, with multiplayer options to include friends or receive help from experienced players. There were 3 main themes in negative reviews. The first concerned bugs that rendered games frustrating. Second, the quality of graphics had a particularly strong impact on perceived enjoyment. Finally, reviewers disliked when games had overly complex controls and display functions that evoked motion sickness.
Conclusions: Exergames prove to be a stimulating avenue for players to engage in PA and distract themselves from the negative perceptions of performing exercise. The common negative aspects of VR exergames should be addressed for increased uptake and continued engagement. Background: Although electronic health interventions are considered safe and efficient, evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring in inflammatory bowel disease is lacking. Methods: We analyzed cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective by comparing the 3 follow-up methods used in a previous week randomized controlled trial, conducted at a tertiary university hospital in Spain.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease who initiated immunosuppressants or biologic agents, or both, to control inflammatory activity were recruited consecutively. Data on the effects on disease activity using clinical indexes and quality-adjusted life-years using the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire were collected.
We compared the mean costs per patient, utilities, and bootstrapped differences. Results: We included 63 patients 21 patients per group. Conclusions: There is a high probability that the TECCU Web platform is more cost-effective than standard and telephone care in the short term. Further research considering larger cohorts and longer time horizons is required. Background: Family conflict can reduce adolescent adherence to type 1 diabetes management tasks.
The Family Teamwork in-person intervention was shown to be efficacious in reducing conflict and low adherence to diabetes-related tasks. Its reach and potential impact, however, were limited by the need to deliver the intervention sessions in person. Relational agents ie, computerized versions of humans have been shown to appeal to diverse audiences and may be an acceptable replacement for a human in technology-based behavior change interventions.
Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a pilot study assessing feasibility and acceptability of Diabetes Family Teamwork Online, an adapted version of the Family Teamwork intervention, delivered over the internet and guided by a relational agent. Methods: Parent-adolescent dyads were recruited through a diabetes care clinic at a large tertiary care hospital in the southwestern United States.
A one-group design, with assessments at baseline, immediate postintervention, and 3 months later, was used to assess feasibility. A priori feasibility criteria included an assessment of recruitment, completion, attrition, program satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, attitudes toward the relational agent, and data collection. The institutional review board at Baylor College of Medicine approved the protocol H Results: Twenty-seven adolescents aged 10 to 15 years with type 1 diabetes and their parents were enrolled.
All feasibility criteria were met.
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Qualitative data confirmed that adolescents and parents had positive reactions to both the content and approach. Conclusions: The Diabetes Family Teamwork Online intervention proved to be a feasible and acceptable method for enhancing communication around diabetes management tasks in families with an adolescent who has type 1 diabetes. Background: Stress-related disorders are associated with significant suffering, functional impairment, and high societal costs.
Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy ICBT is a promising treatment for stress-related disorders but has so far not been subjected to health economic evaluation. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of ICBT for patients with stress-related disorders in the form of adjustment disorder AD or exhaustion disorder ED.
We hypothesized that ICBT, compared with a waitlist control WLC group, would generate improvements at low net costs, thereby making it cost-effective. Health outcomes and costs were surveyed pre- and posttreatment. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ICERs based on remission rates and incremental cost-utility ratios ICURs based on health-related quality of life. Bootstrap sampling was used to assess the uncertainty of our results.
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of our results. Compared with no treatment, ICBT for these patients yields large effects at no or minimal societal net costs.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials. Background: School-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use ATOD surveys are a common epidemiological means of understanding youth risk behaviors. They can be used to monitor national trends and provide data, in aggregate, to schools, communities, and states for the purposes of funding allocation, prevention programming, and other supportive infrastructure.
However, such surveys sometimes are targeted by public criticism, and even legal action, often in response to a lack of perceived appropriateness. The ubiquity of social media has added the risk of potential online firestorms, or digital outrage events, to the hazards to be considered when administering such a survey.
Little research has investigated the influence of online firestorms on public health survey administration, and no research has analyzed the content of such an occurrence. Analyzing this content will facilitate insights as to how practitioners can minimize the risk of generating outrage when conducting such surveys. Methods: Data were collected by archiving all public comments made in response to a news study about a school-based ATOD survey that was featured on a common social networking platform. Using the general inductive approach and elements of thematic analysis, two researchers followed a multi-step protocol to clean, categorize, and consolidate data, generating codes for all responses.
Results: In total, comments were coded as oppositional to the survey and 74 were coded as supportive. Among the former, comments tended to reflect government-related concerns, conspiratorial or irrational thinking, issues of parental autonomy and privacy, fear of child protective services or police, issues with survey mechanisms, and reasoned disagreement.
Among the latter, responses showed that posters perceived the ability to prevent abuse and neglect and support holistic health, surmised that opponents were hiding something, expressed reasoned support, or made factual statements about the survey. Consistent with research on moral outrage and digital firestorms, few comments Discover Social Media mentions by hovering over the donut. Background: The structure of the sexual networks and partnership characteristics of young black men who have sex with men MSM may be contributing to their high risk of contracting HIV in the United States.
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the age- and race-related search patterns of users of a diverse geosocial networking mobile app in seven metropolitan areas in the United States to understand the disparities in sexually transmitted infection and HIV risk in MSM communities.
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Methods: Data were collected on user behavior between November and May Data pertaining to behavior on the app were collected for men who had searched for partners with at least one search parameter narrowed from defaults or used the app to send at least one private chat message and used the app at least once during the study period.
Newman assortativity coefficient R was calculated from the study data to understand assortativity patterns of men by race. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess assortativity patterns by age. Results: From November through May , there were 2,, searches in all seven metropolitan areas among , searchers.
Assortativity by age was important for looking at the profiles of candidates with correlation coefficients ranging from 0. Men tended to look at the profiles of candidates that matched their race in a highly assortative manner with R ranging from 0. For the initiation of chats, race appeared to be slightly assortative for some groups with R ranging from 0.
In Birmingham and Tampa, searchers from all races tended to initiate chats with black candidates. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the age preferences of MSM are relatively consistent across cities, that is, younger MSM are more likely to be chatted with and have their profiles viewed compared with older MSM, but the patterns of racial mixing are more variable.
Although some generalizations can be made regarding Web-based behaviors across all cities, city-specific usage patterns and trends should be analyzed to create targeted and localized interventions that may make the most difference in the lives of MSM in these areas. Background: The rapid development of genetic and genomic technologies, such as next-generation sequencing and genome editing, has made disease treatment much more precise and effective. However, the collection and sharing of genomic data has many obstacles, including low data quality, information islands, tampering distortions, missing records, leaking of private data, and gray data transactions.
Objective: This study aimed to prove that emerging blockchain technology provides a solution for the protection and management of sensitive personal genomic data because of its decentralization, traceability, encryption algorithms, and antitampering features. Results: Blockchain opens up new avenues for dealing with data ownership, data sharing, and data security issues in genomic big data platforms and realizes the psychological empowerment of individuals in the platform. Conclusions: The blockchain platform provides new possibilities for the management and security of genetic data and can help realize the psychological empowerment of individuals in the process, and consequently, the effects of data self-governance, incentive-sharing, and security improvement can be achieved.
However, there are still some problems in the blockchain that have not been solved, and which require continuous in-depth research and innovation in the future. Previous studies demonstrated that CAD can improve the diagnosis perfor Background: Social media provides the potential to engage a wide audience about scientific research, including the public.
However little empirical research exists to guide scientific organizations re However little empirical research exists to guide scientific organizations regarding what works and how to optimize impact. We examined the social media campaign datasaveslives, which was established in to highlight positive examples of the reuse of health data in research. Objective: The study aimed to examine how the datasaveslives hashtag was used on social media, how often and by whom; thus, the study aimed to provide insights into the impact of a major social media campaign in the UK health informatics research community and further afield.
Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses, we determined the frequency and purpose of tweets. Social network analysis was used to analyze and visualize the flow of information between hashtag users. In total, 2, Higher frequencies of tweets were observed during the weeks of prominent policy publications, popular conferences and public engagement events. Cluster analysis based on retweet relationships revealed an interconnected series of groups of datasaveslives users in academia, health services and policy, and charities and patient networks.
Thematic analysis of tweets showed that datasaveslives was used for a broader range of purposes than indexing information, including event reporting, encouraging participation and action, and showing personal support for data sharing. Conclusions: This study shows that a hashtag-based social media campaign was effective in encouraging a wide audience of stakeholders to disseminate positive examples of health research.
Furthermore, the findings suggest the campaign supported community-building and bridging practices within and between the interdisciplinary sectors related to the field of health data science and encouraged individuals to demonstrate personal support for sharing health data. Background: Tuberculosis TB is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, with around 1. Objective: The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the state of research on the use of digital technology to enhance TB care and control.
This study provides an overview of publications covering this subject and answers three main questions: i to what extent has the issue been addressed in the scientific literature between January and March ; ii which countries have been investing in research in this field; and iii what digital technologies were used? Studies that describe the use of digital technology with specific reference to keywords such as TB, digital health, eHealth, and mHealth were included.
Data from selected studies were synthesized into four functions using narrative and graphical methods. Such digital health interventions were categorized based on two classifications, one by function and the other by targeted user. Results: A total of relevant studies were identified out of the 1, published between January and March The researchers from the USA conducted their research both domestically and abroad, whereas researchers from China and India conducted all studies domestically. Only a few studies addressed interventions for data services and health system or resource management.
Objective: This study examined the preliminary efficacy of Storytelling 4 Empowerment S4E , relative to enhanced usual practice, in reducing past day substance use i. Additionally, this study examined changes in the potential mechanisms by which behavior change occurs, namely clinician—youth risk communication, prevention knowledge, and substance use and sexual risk refusal self-efficacy. Methods: Employing community-based participatory principles, 50 youth aged 13—21 years were recruited from a youth-centered community health clinic in Southeast Michigan; randomized sequentially to either S4E or enhanced usual practice; and assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 30 days post-intervention.
Results: Relative to youth in the enhanced usual practice group, S4E participants demonstrated reductions in the proportions of past day overall substance use, as well as past day alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. The results also showed a reduction in the proportion of youth who reported past day condomless sex, and alcohol use prior to sex.
Finally, the results showed increases in youth—clinician risk communication, prevention knowledge, and self-efficacy. Background: Patient participation in the healthcare domain has surged dramatically through the availability of digital health platforms and online health communities OHCs. Such patient-driven servic Such patient-driven service innovation has both challenges and potentials for healthcare organizations. On the other hand, patient participation offers the potential to enhance service value.
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Over the last five years, articles have surfaced that focus on value co-creation in the healthcare services and the importance of engaging patients and other actors in service delivery. However, a theoretical understanding of how to use OHCs for this purpose is still underdeveloped within the healthcare service ecosystem.
A total of studies were identified from the database search. After removing duplicates and applying inclusion criteria, we thematically analysed 56 articles.