Finally, we will explore the effects that motion parameters such as speed and acceleration, measured directly from original human actions, have on the perception of intent; fMRI studies that connect neural networks to motion parameters, and the resultant perception of animacy and intention, will also be examined. Skip to main content Accessibility information. Site tools A-Z Lists. Home Enlighten Publications. Enlighten: Publications. Perceiving intention in animacy displays created from human motion. Abstract Typically, the actions of agents in classical animacy displays are synthetically created, thus forming artificial displays of biological movement.
Deposit and Record Details. Back to top. By one-sample binomial test 0. We used a mixed-effects Cox regression R coxme package to compare the differences between the latencies of the first approaches, first touches and first grabs of the UMOs the balls attached to them. With mixed effects Cox regression, we found significant difference in the latency of first approach of the UMOs, and the latency of first touch and first grab of the balls attached to the UMOs.
Dogs approached the UMOs from the chasing demonstration with approximately 4. Also, dogs touched with approximately 4. We also found that dogs grabbed the ball from the UMOs that demonstrated the chasing pattern with approximately 6. The figures show the cumulative proportion of individuals presenting the given behaviour at a given time Mixed effects Cox regression. Based on the results of the one-sample binomial test 0. The dashed line represents the 0. It seems that overall dogs were more interested in the UMOs from the chasing demonstration; they approached these UMOs sooner, and also touched and took away the balls attached to these agents earlier.
It is also a plausible explanation that dogs showed such preference, because during their daily lives both the balls and the chasing pattern can be associated with playing.
This explanation also supports the recognition of the dependent motion pattern as chasing. The novel method applied here can be a useful approach to study the spontaneous recognition of animacy for several reasons. We propose that this method offers a more direct measure of the perception of animacy because subjects have the chance to initiate an interaction. Also, in former studies that examined the duration of looking at the stimuli e.
We suggest that the present data provide stronger evidence on the presence of the phenomenon. In addition, our new method does not require initial training, thus subjects do not habituate to the demonstrated patterns which could have an impact on their behaviour. In that case we would expect that they spend more time looking at the stimulus they are more interested in. In the present study we showed only one motion pattern at a time to dogs, thus there was no cost of looking at the less interesting pattern.
Similarly as in former studies e. Although we cannot conclude that the displayed pattern was recognized specifically as chasing by our subjects, we suggest that the different behaviour of our participants that was shown toward the UMOs could be only due to the difference in their motion patterns dependent vs.
Considering that here we counterbalanced for many aspects of the motion e. The physical characteristics of the motion patterns are important in the perception of animacy e. Although some studies have been aimed at investigating how the changes in some parameters of the motion characteristics influences this perception e.
For example, we propose that the exact values of these parameters e. The novel method presented here can facilitate research aimed at investigating such details of the perception of animacy. We further suggest that there may be ecologically relevant differences among species in relation to the exact motion characteristics that can lead to the recognition of inanimate agents as animate entities.
By the means of this method a wide range of species could be tested, even in their natural habitat. This would allow us to assess potential differences in the criteria of attributing animacy to inanimate agents in species with different life style, for example, social vs.
Future investigations conducted on different species are required to draw conclusions about the evolutionary background of the perception of animacy. We propose that the methodological approach we introduced in the present study can be used more widely among species to test this phenomenon, which would allow more direct comparison of their perceptual abilities.
Nowadays more and more robots are available, in cases of which many parameters of the movement e. We believe that technological advances enable the refinement of our method to be able to control better for many parameters of the motion in the future. We are also grateful to all owners and their dogs for their participation in the study.
Formal analysis: JA. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Humans tend to perceive inanimate objects as animate based on simple motion cues. Introduction Attribution of animacy or psychological traits to inanimate agents seems to be a general phenomenon in humans starting early during ontogeny e.
Subjects We tested 35 dogs that have not had previous experience with UMOs. Apparatus Dogs were tested in a 6. Download: PPT. Design of the movement patterns In the design of the chasing pattern we took into consideration motion characteristics that have been found as important to recognize a chasing pattern in former studies e.
Table 1. Quantitative information on the movement of the UMOs in the chasing and independent demonstrations. Procedure Observation phase. Test phase. Behavioural variables and data analysis Tests were analysed with the Solomon Coder Observation phase. Fig 4. Discussion It seems that overall dogs were more interested in the UMOs from the chasing demonstration; they approached these UMOs sooner, and also touched and took away the balls attached to these agents earlier.
Supporting information. S1 Dataset. Measurement data of subjects. S1 Video. Video demonstration of the procedure. References 1. Heider F, Simmel M.
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Perception of animacy in dogs and humans
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Social Perception and Eye Tracking - Department of Psychology - Uppsala University, Sweden
Atsumi T, Nagasaka Y. Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys Saimiri sciureus. Cognit Psychol. The detection of contingency and animacy from simple animations in the human brain. Cereb Cortex. Linking perceptual animacy to attention: Evidence from the chasing detection paradigm. Perceptual animacy: Visual search for chasing objects among distractors. Scholl BJ, Gao T.
Perceiving animacy and intentionality: Visual processing or higher-level judgment. The wolfpack effect perception of animacy irresistibly influences interactive behavior. Psychol Sci. What are you or who are you? The emergence of social interaction between dog and an unidentified moving object UMO.
PloS one. An investigation on social representations: inanimate agent can mislead dogs Canis familiaris in a food choice task. The automaticity of perceiving animacy: Goal-directed motion in simple shapes influences visuomotor behavior even when task-irrelevant. Psychon Bull Rev.
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