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Predicting Genetic Variance of Maize Inbreds. Beta Glucan in Barley. The financial value of soybean N fixation in Africa was evaluated by Chianu et al. Accordingly, it was shown by the authors that the N fixing attribute of soybean in Africa is of high financial value. They especially indicated the promiscuous varieties and recommended options, which may increase the chances of smallholder farmers to benefit from the process of N biological fixation.
This is especially the case under those conditions where the quantities of inorganic fertilizers for increased soy productivity are inadequate. They mentioned that the promiscuous soybean varieties are not planted by the 19 African countries that produce soybean. However, the financial benefits from the process of N2 fixation by promiscuous soybean can suitably illustrate how soil microbial biodiversity can sustain human welfare. There are plenty of situations to further indicate the benefits of biological N fixation as, interestingly, some inoculated cultivars did not produce a higher yield than the uninoculated promiscuous varieties with the highest rate of production.
Accordingly, the authors indicated that plant response to inoculation is complex and their recommendation was related to the selection and breeding of promiscuous soybean varieties in the case of Africa. Legume crops including soybean are able to nodulate with a wide variety of rhizobial strains in the soils being referred to as promiscuous Mpepereki et al.
Usually some uninoculated promiscuous varieties are able to produce similar yield levels, related to the promiscuous varieties, which are inoculated efficiently with rhizobia Chianu et al. It may not be a priority at this stage to focus on the development and production of inocula, due to the uncertainties resulted by different responses in many places and difficulties related to the production and conservation of inocula.
In the future, a global crop demand is unavoidable, as the human population is steadily increasing Tilman et al. In addition to population growth, agricultural production has not kept pace with estimated demand. Ray et al. Those authors projected crop yields to indicating an increase of 1. Soybean is among the 16 major crops barley, cassava, groundnut, maize, millet, potato, oil palm, rapeseed, rice, rye, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sugarcane, sunflower, and wheat cultivated worldwide Foley et al. Thus, it is crucial that policy makers and land managers improve soybean research see Masuda and Goldsmith, The main reason for the increase of soybean yield was a higher production area, related to the lower increase of grain yield reviewed by Wingeyer et al.
The cultivation of soybean after maize in Canada is common; however, due to the presence of greater amounts of maize residues, its plantation under no-tillage, which may decrease its production. Such adverse effects are by influencing soil nitrogen and soybean nodulation, soybean emergence, growth, and development, as well as by impacting soil physical properties such as moisture and temperature Vanhie et al. Soybean is also cultivated as an important summer crop in Japan in rotation with winter wheat or as an upland crop fallow Higo et al.
Increasing the potential yield of soybean, especially with respect to the climate and genetic potential of crop requires more investigation, as well as taking into account the following: 1 maximum yield of a crop cultivar produced under certain environmental conditions; 2 adequate amounts of nutrients and water; and 3 controlling pests and diseases reviewed by Salvagiotti et al.
Production and supply, stock levels, and soybean prices have changed along with the high demand of soybean by the population MAPA, ; Masuda and Goldsmith, Since , the production of soybean in USA has been at its highest rate 89, million tons , over 33, million hectares USDA, Masuda and Goldsmith analyzed the production of soybean worldwide, as well as the area harvested and the related yield. The yearly rate of increase of soybean was at 4. They estimated that the yearly production of soybean will be at 2.
They accordingly indicated the following as the major factors affecting soybean production globally: 1 limitation of cultivable lands, and 2 the need for investment by the public, private concerns, and farmers to increase soybean yield. It is, especially, cultivated in the midwest and south regions of the country. The research and advances by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa , in partnership with farmers, industry, and private research centers, has made the cultivation of soybean likely in the Cerrado grasslands.
Such progress has also resulted in an increase yield production per hectare, competing with the major world production rates. However, the cultivation of soybean is conducted by the use of sustainable agricultural practices such as the use of no-tillage and integrated crop—livestock system MAPA, A single-gene transformation results in the production of genetically modified crops, such as a herbicide resistant crop e. Currently, soybean and corn, followed by canola and cotton, are the main transgenic crops, cultivated in the United States and some other countries Argentina, Canada, and China.
The production of genetically modified crops such as Roundup Ready soybeans is large in Argentina, which is the second biggest transgenic area worldwide; however, the effects of these biotechnologies have still to be further investigated Qaim and Traxler, Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria classified and characterized by different systems. Beijerinck was able to isolate and cultivate a microorganism, named Bacillus radiocicola , from the nodules of legumes in However, Frank renamed it Rhizobium leguminosarum Fred et al.
Mean generation time of the slow and fast growing bacteria is greater and less than 6 h in selective broth media, respectively Elkan, Until now, about genera of legumes, containing 16,—19, species, have been recognized; however, only a few have been examined Allen and Allen, The first accepted change in the rhizobial nomenclature was the establishment of Bradyrhizobium Jordan, The strain of Bradyrhizobium , which is able to nodulate soybean, is characterized as Bradyrhizobium japonicum , the first recognized group of Bradyrhizobium strains Young and Haukka, Bradyrhizobium elkanii Kuykendall et al.
Bradyrhizobium liaoningense are also among the other extra slow growing soybean rhizobia with the ability of forming a coherent DNA—DNA hybridization group Xu et al. Moreover, some Bradyrhizobium strains, known as Bradyrhizobium sp. The current characterization of rhizobia is on the basis of gene sequencing for the 16S or small subunit of ribosomal RNA Jarvis et al. Four recognized species of Bradyrhizobium include: B.
Young, As suggested by Young , the Bradyrhizobium genus will not have new species allocated; however, the host name will be mentioned in parentheses. The specific and compatible rhizobia nodulating soybean is B. Soybean association with rhizobia, including B. Rhizobia are the bacteria, which include Rhizobium , Bradyrhizobium , Sinorhizobium , etc. Laranjo et al. They have presented brief details of rhizobia including their rhizobial genomes, taxonomic diversity, and nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes. According to the above-mentioned details the term rhizobia includes the genus Rhizobium , Bradyrhizobium , Sinorhizobium , and Mesorhizobium.
Moreover, rhizobia include Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales though some isolates of wild legumes belong to the class of Betaproteobacteria Laranjo et al. Some research has also indicated that legumes are able to be nodulated once or several times during evolution Sprent, For a review on developments to improve symbiotic nitrogen fixation and productivity of grain legumes see Dwivedi et al. The main function of nodules on soybean roots is to fix the atmospheric N by the process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, supplying nitrogen for plant growth and seed production. Sugiyama et al.
In the last few years approximately 13, peer reviewed journal papers on soybean production have been produced, of which focused on soil management Table 1. Among the studies on soybean interactions with microorganisms Table 1. Among an increasing number of reviews published on N2 fixation in legumes, soybean in particular accounts for 20 documents in the SCOPUS database Miransari et al.
In a review paper, Salvagiotti et al.
For a 1 kg increase in N accumulation in above-ground biomass, they found a mean linear increase of 0. Moreover, the N that is harvested by soybean grain must be supplied by both the process of N fixation and chemical N fertilization. It was not possible to estimate the actual contribution of below-ground N and its variation, and more research work must be conducted to determine such details. With respect to such constraints, the development of rhizobia, which are able to fix N2 under stress, is essential for providing the host plant with N Alves et al.
It has been shown that the efficiency of the symbiotic process depends on many factors including the host plant, bacteria, the process of symbiosis, and the environment. Among the most important constraints affecting plant growth and the process of fixation are the soils, which are not highly fertile, resulting in the limited availability of macro- and micronutrients Campo et al. In the absence of growth constraints and in the presence of soybean genotypes with a high rate of yield at levels above 4.
The deep use of slow-release fertilizer underneath the nodulation zone, or using N chemical fertilization during the reproductive stages in high-yielding environments, can significantly improve soybean yield Salvagiotti et al. Diaz et al. They observed that inoculation of soybean host plant with rhizobia increased soybean grain yield, plant dry matter, N concentration, N accumulation, and grain N, although the quality of seed remained constant.
In contrast, although the N fertilizer increased plant dry matter, it did not increase grain yield, with or without inoculation. Moreover, no increases in plant N or improved seed quality were detected. They accordingly suggested inoculating soybean seed when planted after long-term grass pasture, without chemical N fertilizer.
Cases of legume introduction in places where rhizobia were not present to nodulate the introduced crop indicate the essentiality of research work to determine rhizobial evolution. One of the most remarkable cases is the introduction of soybean in Brazil Barcellos et al. The implications of biserrula, nodulated by Mesorhizobium ciceri typically known for nodulating chickpea , introduced in Australia, is the other example of naturally occurring rhizobia, which are able to evolve and acquire, by the process of lateral gene transfer, genes essential for the inoculation of the introduced legume.
A 5-year period was essential for the detection of rhizobia able to nodulate biserrula in Australian soils, different from the original inoculant Nandasena et al. With regard to mycorrhizas, Miranda compiled information on AM fungi in crops from Cerrado, the Brazilian savannah. In line with earlier studies, she showed that soybean can be inoculated by four species of AM fungi including Glomus etunicatum , Entrophospora colombiana , Acaulospora scrobiculata , and Gigaspora gigantea in pots with autoclaved native soil, fertilized with P2O5 and lime.
She showed that G. She also found that the plant production in the inoculated pastures Andropogon guayanus and Stylosanthes guianensis was more responsive to fungal inoculation. Usually, soybean crop is inoculated with a lesser rate of mycorrhizal colonization than for maize. Hence, the crop rotation can benefit soybean plant with a higher rate of AM fungi in the first year of soybean—maize rotation Miranda et al.
Melatonin enhances plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance in soybean plants
Perez-Brandan et al. They analyzed soybean monoculture, soybean—maize rotation, and native vegetation. According to their research, a higher rate of carbon in microbial biomass and a higher rate of glomalin-related soil protein was found under the rotation system than in monoculture. Such results indicate that agricultural intensification can deteriorate soil biological, chemical, and physical properties. They also indicate that functional diversity was less in monocultures than in rotation and native vegetation.
It is known that the intensive use of land can affect biodiversity and as a result the changes in the composition or species diversity of aboveground communities can affect soil communities Suleiman et al. Research on glomalin or glomalin-related soil protein is increasing in agro-ecosystems Curaqueo et al. It is believed that AM hyphae decompose and liberate glomalin residue in the soil Treseder and Turner, The protein is extracted from the soil by autoclaving in citrate solutions and their easy evaluation and little soil demand generally 1 g support their assessment.
Curaqueo et al. Junior et al. They determined an increased number of nodules using Roundup until 15 days after the application. However, after that period, the inoculated control presented more nodules. They observed no influence of glyphosate in the root colonization by AM fungi. It is known that Bradyrhizobium strains may not be tolerant to the presence of glyphosate application, thus decreasing the host plant nodulation Bohm and Rombaldi, ; Reis et al.
The process of biological N fixation contributes to the high production of soybean and this technology uses the selected strains of B. Malty et al. The growth of Bradyrhizobium spp. Germination and growth of AM fungal spores was affected more in the Gigasporaceae representatives than in Glomus. It is known that ecosystem services are affected by soil properties, soil conditions e. However, better soil management will depend on regional understanding and cooperation between researchers, policy makers, and the community.
It is also known that the number, diversity, and activity of both free and symbiotic fungi are modified by crops Kahiluoto et al. That is why the ecosystem services of soils need to be given greater recognition as the impact of agriculture on soil structure or changing the inhabitant species of soil is crucial. Efforts to restore ecosystem services need to take into account sustainable rural incomes and community participation. Among soil ecosystem services, AM fungi protect soil structure and plant roots against disease or drought Simard and Austin, Mycorrhizal fungi can significantly affect plant growth Smith and Read, as different AM fungal communities are present in different land use systems Sene et al.
Cotton et al. On increasing the rate of CO2 exposure, there were only differences created in the community composition of AM fungi increased ratio of Glomeraceae to Gigasporaceae. Due to its importance as a major crop in many parts of the world and in internationally competitive agriculture, more research on soybean management can contribute to a higher yield of soybean worldwide.
Interestingly, Juge et al. They found different effects of the tested microbes on shoot biomass; however, they mentioned that the fact that coinoculation effects on nodulation are strain dependent and must be considered. Higo et al. They found the effect of crop rotation on AM fungal communities with specific AM fungi associated with soybean. They also pointed out differences between mixtures of AM fungi isolates and single strain inocula, proposing an effective selection of AM fungi for soybean.
Interest in soil management and sustainable production has increased worldwide. Moreover, tillage practices with higher efficiency have contributed to the success of cropland yields, although there has been a recent expansion of monocropping soybean production. Such a method in current agricultural practices can lead to a decrease in soil quality even though the no-tillage practices may improve such effects Wingeyer et al.
Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Soybean Production - 1st Edition
The removal of pasture from crop cultivations, together with the increased frequency of soybean cultivation, and the conversion of native vegetation into farmland constitute may adversely affect soil quality. In this regard, Vanhie et al. It is a common practice to encourage environmental benefits such as reduced soil erosion, fuel usage, and carbon emissions Seta et al.
Plant residues from the previous crop can suppress the activity of pathogens by enhancing the general microbial activity. Although the debris increases the microbial activity, it can also enhance the activity of pathogens by preventing a decrease in the inoculum. This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue? Upload Sign In Join. Home Books Science. Save For Later. Create a List. Summary Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Soybean Production: Soybean Production Volume One presents the important results of research in both field and greenhouse conditions that guide readers to effectively manage the chemical, physical, and biological factors that can put soybean production at risk.
Presents insights for the successful production of soybean based on chemical, physical and biologic challenges Includes the latest specifics on soybean properties, growth, and production, including responses to different stresses and their alleviation methods Offers recent advancements related to the process of N fixation and rhizobium, including signaling pathways and their practical use Explores the production of rhizobium inoculums at large-scale levels.
Read on the Scribd mobile app Download the free Scribd mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. Company, Isfahan, Iran Table of Contents Cover Title page Copyright Dedication List of contributors Foreword Preface Acknowledgments 1: The importance of soybean production worldwide Abstract Introduction World soybean production The importance of soybean production Microbial associations The importance of better soybean management Conclusions Acknowledgments 2: Signaling cross talk between biotic and abiotic stress responses in soybean Abstract Introduction Transcription factors as key mediators of stress cross talk Role of phytohormones and signaling components in stress regulatory cross talk in soybean Involvement of microRNAs in abiotic and biotic stress regulation in soybean Mycorrhiza-mediated approaches for conferring biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in soybean Conclusions and future perspectives Acknowledgments 3: Enhancing soybean response to biotic and abiotic stresses Abstract Introduction Soybean and stress B.
N fixation and its environmental and economical significance Soybean N fixation and stress Conclusions and future perspectives Heat stress responses and thermotolerance in soybean Abstract Introduction Effects of high temperature on soybean Approaches to develop high-temperature stress tolerance in soybean Conclusions and future perspectives Strategies, challenges, and future perspectives for soybean production under stress Abstract Introduction Soybean Glycine max L.
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