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Gunasekaran, Gopalakrishana Kumar, U. Ushani, Khac-Uan Do, J. Rajesh Banu. Luong N.

Advances in Clarification Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment

Nguyen, Anh Q. Nguyen, Long D. Biofouling Detection on Reverse Osmosis Membranes. Leonard D. These systems evolved from stabilization ponds when aeration devices were added to counteract odors arising from septic conditions. The aeration devices can be mechanical or diffused air systems. To counteract this, hydrograph controlled release HCR lagoons are a recent innovation. In this system, wastewater is discharged only during periods when the stream flow is adequate to prevent water quality degradation.

When stream conditions prohibit discharge, wastewater is accumulated in a storage lagoon. Typical design parameters are summarized in Table Constructed wetlands, aquacultural operations, and sand filters are generally the most successful methods of polishing the treated wastewater effluent from the lagoons. These systems have also been used with more traditional, engineered primary treatment technologies such as Imhoff tanks, septic tanks, and primary clarifiers. Their main advantage is to provide additional treatment beyond secondary treatment where required.

In recent years, constructed wetlands have been utilized in two designs: systems using surface water flows and systems using subsurface flows. Both systems utilize the roots of plants to provide substrate for the growth of attached bacteria which utilize the nutrients present in the effluents and for the transfer of oxygen. Bacteria do the bulk of the work in these systems, although there is some nitrogen uptake by the plants. The surface water system most closely approximates a natural wetland. Typically, these systems are long, narrow basins, with depths of less than 2 feet, that are planted with aquatic vegetation such as bulrush Scirpus spp.

The shallow groundwater systems use a gravel or sand medium, approximately eighteen inches deep, which provides a rooting medium for the aquatic plants and through which the wastewater flows. Reed, et al.

CRC Press Online - Series: Advances in Water and Wastewater Transport and Treatment

Aquaculture systems are distinguished by the type of plants grown in the wastewater holding basins. These plants are commonly water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes or duckweed Lemna spp. These systems are basically shallow ponds covered with floating plants that detain wastewater at least one week. The main purpose of the plants in these systems is to provide a suitable habitat for bacteria which remove the vast majority of dissolved nutrients. The design features of such systems are summarized in Table See also section 2.

Cincinnati, Ohio, EPA Report No. Two types of sand filters are commonly used: intermittent and recirculating. They differ mainly in the method of application of the wastewater. Intermittent filters are flooded with wastewater and then allowed to drain completely before the next application of wastewater. In contrast, recirculating filters use a pump to recirculate the effluent to the filter in a ratio of 3 to 5 parts filter effluent to 1 part raw wastewater.

Both types of filters use a sand layer, 2 to 3 feet thick, underlain by a collection system of perforated or open joint pipes enclosed within graded gravel. Water is treated biologically by the epiphytic flora associated with the sand and gravel particles, although some physical filtration of suspended solids by the sand grains and some chemical adsorption onto the surface of the sand grains play a role in the treatment process. They depend upon physical, chemical, and biological reactions on and within the soil.


Slow-rate subsurface infiltration systems and rapid infiltration systems are "zero discharge" systems that rarely discharge effluents directly to streams or other surface waters. Each system has different constraints regarding soil permeability. Although slow-rate overland flow systems are the most costly of the natural systems to implement, their advantage is their positive impact on sustainable development practices. The water may also be used to support reforestation projects in water-poor areas.

In slow-rate systems, either primary or secondary wastewater is applied at a controlled rate, either by sprinklers or by flooding of furrows, to a vegetated land surface of moderate to low permeability. The wastewater is treated as it passes through the soil by filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, precipitation, microbial action, and plant uptake.

Vegetation is a critical component of the process and serves to extract nutrients, reduce erosion, and maintain soil permeability. Overland flow systems are a land application treatment method in which treated effluents are eventually discharged to surface water. The main benefits of these systems are their low maintenance and low technical manpower requirements.

Wastewater is applied intermittently across the tops of terraces constructed on soils of very low permeability and allowed to sheet-flow across the vegetated surface to the runoff collection channel.

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Treatment, including nitrogen removal, is achieved primarily through sedimentation, filtration, and biochemical activity as the wastewater flows across the vegetated surface of the terraced slope. Loading rates and application cycles are designed to maintain active microorganism growth in the soil.

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  5. The rate and length of application are controlled to minimize the occurrence of severe anaerobic conditions, and a rest period between applications is needed. The rest period should be long enough to prevent surface ponding, yet short enough to keep the microorganisms active. Site constraints relating to land application technologies are shown in Table Their cost and manpower requirements are low.

    Wastewater is applied to soils that are moderately or highly permeable by spreading in basins or by sprinkling. Vegetation is not necessary, but it does not cause a problem if present. The major treatment goal is to convert ammonia nitrogen in the water to nitrate nitrogen before discharging to the receiving water. Subsurface infiltration systems are designed for municipalities of less than 2, people. They are usually designed for individual homes septic tanks , but they can be designed for clusters of homes. Although they do require specific site conditions, they can be low-cost methods of wastewater disposal.

    Combinations of some of them with wastewater reuse technologies have been tested in several countries. Colombia has extensively tested aerobic and anaerobic mechanical treatment systems. Chile, Colombia, and Barbados have used activated sludge plants, while Brazil has utilized vertical reactor plants. An emerging technology, being tested in a number of different countries, is a hybrid aquatic-terrestrial treatment system that uses wastewaters for hydroponic cultivation.

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    However, most of the applications of this hybrid technology to date have been limited to the experimental treatment of small volumes of wastewater. Operation and Maintenance Operation and maintenance requirements vary depending on the particular technology used. In mechanical activated-sludge plants, maintenance requirements consist of periodically activating the sludge pumps, inspecting the system to ensure that are no blockages or leakages in the system, and checking BOD and suspended solids concentrations in the plant effluent to ensure efficient operation.

    A preventive maintenance program should also be established to increase the efficiency of the treatment systems and prolong their lifespan. When using terrestrial treatment systems or hybrid hydroponic cultivation systems for wastewater treatment, it is advisable to have two parallel systems, and to alternate applications of wastewater to these systems every 12 hours in order to facilitate aeration and to avoid damage to the system. Care is required to avoid hydraulic overload in these systems, as the irrigated plant communities could be damaged and the degree of treatment provided negated.

    Level of Involvement Government involvement is essential in the implementation of most of the wastewater treatment technologies.

    1st Edition

    The private sector, particularly the tourism industry, has successfully installed "packaged" or small-scale, self-contained sewage treatment plants at individual sites. Handbook of water and wastewater treatment plant operations. Wastewater engineering: treatment and reuse. Water and Wastewater Systems Analysis.

    Advances in Water and Wastewater Transport and Treatment

    Practical Wastewater Treatment. Biological Wastewater Treatment. Industrial Wastewater Treatment. Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems. Membrane Biophysics Membrane Science and Technology. Recommend Documents.