Manual Collins Cobuild English Grammar (3rd Edition) (2012 Digital Edition)

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The API allows you to request definitions, translations, spelling suggestions, synonyms, related words and much more. Phrasebank The Phrasebank consists of 2, phrases per language, organised thematically with 12 main topics and 67 subtopics. Topics covered include: talking to people, getting around, accommodation, shopping, leisure, communications, practicalities, health and beauty, and eating and drinking.

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Most of the languages include 10, headwords with translations and audio along with 2, phrases with translations and audio. Here is a brief explanation of each of the features: - Inflections: Inflected forms are given in full for English regular and irregular, all parts of speech and for irregular nouns and adjectives for the other languages. Extensive subject labelling is also included for English GB which can be propagated across the database. The examples along with the definitions clarify the sense of the English word intended.

Romanization for phrases only for Hindi, Farsi and Arabic. This improves look up in these languages for digital products. This is important information for learners. All forms contain full grammatical information. We shall call this unit the base. Gentleman is therefore a compound base, but gentlemanly and ungentlemanly are derivative bases; gentle and man are simple bases.

Basic English A variety of the English language, comprising a select vocabulary of words, invented by C. Ogden, of Cambridge, and intended for use as a medium of international communication. Compare acrolect; hyperlect; mesolect. More generally, the least prestigious variety of a language.

The term can be used to describe the dialects of people speaking English as their mother-tongue, and can also be applied in communities where English is used as a second or third language. Also called benefactive. Compare dative 2. Spoken or written in two languages e. Compare ambilingual. In theoretical linguistics syntactic, semantic, and phonological binary contrasts are recognized. Compare componential analysis. See also plurale tantum. Sometimes called irreversible binomial. Note that while most blends are formed by joining a pair of words at the point where they have one or more letters or sounds in common e.

Compare contamination; gradience. It is used especially in notices and newspaper headlines. See also post-bloomfieldian; structuralism. Loanwords attain different degrees of assimilation into the language. Some are totally assimilated to the native word-stock, and are phonetically and orthographically integrated e. A third group may be well assimilated in their form, but remain semantically tied to a foreign context e.

Surprisingly few words have been borrowed into English from the neighbouring Celtic languages Welsh, Gaelic, and Irish. Borrowing from Latin has been constant from the very earliest times, and has always included quite central vocabulary items, such as cheese, kiln, pillow, and tile, borrowed before Old English was recorded. Later Latin loans tended to originate in a learned context, but many have since become general e. Many Latin loanwords have entered the language, virtually unchanged, through the intermediary of French e. The Scandinavian settlement in late Old English times had a marked effect on the English vocabulary: Danish- and English-speaking communities lived side by side for some time, so that penetration was deep and all-pervasive.

Even form words, such as they, them, their, though, and near, were borrowed. Nearly all early Scandinavian loanwords are central items such as cast, egg, law, take. French has contributed more than any other language to the English vocabulary, starting with the earliest post-Conquest loanwords e.

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Borrowing at all levels of vocabulary was especially heavy during the later Middle Ages, greatly affecting the core vocabulary e. Other important European sources of loanwords have been Dutch e. Loanwords from outside Europe tended, in the earlier period of exploration, to come through other languages such as Dutch and Portuguese.

See also base. See government-binding theory. As the examples with cake. It is precisely for this reason that I have treated countability. Such a treatment differs from that commonly found in grammars of English, where a single contrast of mass noun versus count noun is recognised. As an example we might contrast the alternative analyses assigned by different grammars to the sentence He believes the calculations to be wrong using labelled bracketings: He believes [NP the calculations][clause to be wrong] He believes [clause the calculations to be wrong]. Thus He saw the people on the ship is ambiguous between a reading in which the people referred to were on the ship when they were seen, and a reading in which the speaker was on the ship when he made his observation: He saw [NP the people [PP on the ship]] He saw [NP the people] [PP on the ship].

Compare branching. The term is not in general use. Compare semi-negative. See also element. Also called cardinal numeral. See also number; numeral. English pronouns in particular show distinctions between subjective case, objective case, and genitive case; e. Some grammars prefer to use the classical terminology: R. The view taken here, however, is that the correlation between case and syntactic function is so complex that these new terms run the risk of creating confusion, and we have therefore preferred to retain the traditional terms—which also have the advantage that they are much more widely used in the grammars of other languages.

For example, the nouns cats and milk in the sentence Cats like milk are in the plain case. Case Grammar A model of grammar developed in the late s by the American linguist Charles Fillmore b. The theory, along with. Case Grammar made a major contribution to the study of the relationships between grammar and meaning, but has no active practitioners. The perceived erroneous use of a term applied to a concept.

An old-fashioned term, originally rhetorical. Examples: What I want to say is this: please drive carefully. If you see him, will you ask Bob to telephone me? This is a very general term, used in different ways by different grammarians. Chance juxtapositions are not catenative constructions. See also catenative-auxiliary analysis; complex catenative construction; dependent-auxiliary analysis.

See also dependent-auxiliary analysis; lexical verb; main verb; verb. Also called causal. Other causatives include verbs of motion such as place or put, i. The term is also applied to other linguistic units, e. Compare conative. See also adverbial clause; cause. See also causative. Of, at, or forming, the centre. Also called core modal. The contrast between chain and choice can be applied at various levels of linguistic analysis. Thus, if we take the words bat, cat, fat, hat, etc. At a higher level, if we wish to add one word to complete the sentence The cat.

Compare and relationship; colligation; or relationship; paradigm 2 ; paradigmatic; syntagm. See also catenative. Chomsky adjunction See adjunction. Chomskyan adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the theories of the American linguist Noam Chomsky b. Over time he continued to develop his theories and published extensively on phonology his best-known contribution being The Sound Pattern of English in , with M.

Halle , on language and the human mind, and also, critically, on American. See also generalized phrase structure grammar; generative; generative grammar 2 ; government-binding theory; grammar; head-driven phrase structure grammar; phrase structure grammar; principles and parameters theory; standard theory; transformational grammar.

See open; closed 1 ; word class. The term is more useful with reference to a language such as Chinese, which has a system for marking. They do not have comparatives or superlatives. Compare with qualitative adjective. See also adverbial clause; complement clause; free relative clause; nominal clause; relative clause; that-clause; wh-clause. Each of the clause types has a typical use. When a particular clause type is used in a non-typical way e. Considerable confusion is caused when statement, question, exclamation, and directive are used as both syntactic and semantic categories, which is why some grammarians are careful to use declarative,.

Compare minor sentence. See also mood. Another type of structure, sometimes included under cleft, is more carefully distinguished as the pseudo-cleft construction also called wh-cleft. The focus comes at the very end. What they like is a long lunch. Unlike the cleft sentence, the pseudo-cleft can have a verb phrase in the focus position, e. What Bob does on Sundays is to play golf. In a reverse pseudo-cleft construction the order of the clauses is inverted: A long lunch is what they like. A term applied in various areas of grammar where there are no clear-cut contrasts.

See also gradience. A form pronounced with very little emphasis, usually shortened, and typically phonologically attached to a host word. But, on the whole, closed classes do not allow newcomers, even though sometimes it may be desirable. For example, it would be useful for English to possess a singular unisex. However, none of the many words suggested has become part of ordinary usage. Contrast minor and major word class See major. Of a conditional clause or sentence: See condition; conditional. Code can also mean any of two or more distinct languages in a situation where more than one is available to a speaker.

The term is particularly favoured by those wishing to avoid the possibly pejorative overtones of the word dialect. A sociological theory put forward in the early s contrasted an elaborated code and a restricted code. The two codes were said to characterize middle-class and working-class speech. The theory aroused both interest and argument. See nice properties. Latin mater, German Mutter, and English mother are cognate words or cognates. French, Italian, and Spanish are cognate languages: they are all derived from Latin. The analysis of different types of meaning is far from simple, and different semanticists make different distinctions.

Compare denotative; ideational. See also communicative meaning; conative; connotation; descriptive; emotive; illocutionary meaning; interpersonal meaning; referential meaning. Cognitive Grammar A term coined by R. Coherence often depends on shared knowledge, implication, or inference. But if B had replied with a rather different statement, e. In the following dialogue there grammatically substitutes for at the meeting, and the pronoun it refers to the meeting.

How did it go? HASAN Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another. The one presupposes the other, in the sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except by recourse to it. When this happens, a relation of cohesion is set up, and the two elements, the presupposing and the presupposed, are thereby at least potentially integrated into a text.

See also cohesive. There are some exceptions. Thus an expletive can be inserted into some words, e. Compare tmesis. Compare anaphora; cataphora. Examples include army, audience, committee, family, herd, majority, parliament, team. The audience, which was a large one, was in its place by 7 p. The audience, who were all waving their arms above their heads, were clearly enjoying themselves.

Notice that even when followed by a plural verb, such nouns still take a singular determinative; e. This family are all accomplished musicians. The use of a plural verb with a grammatically singular noun of this type is more common in British English than in American English. See aggregate; group noun; plurale tantum. The term was introduced by the British linguist J.

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The term is far less general than the contrasting term collocation. Compare construction; co-occurrence; pattern. See also chain; syntagmatic. See also neo-firthian. A word that collocates with another. But many are much more restricted, and can occur only with one other word or with a limited set of other. Here we can say that adherence collocates with to, and account collocates with for, and that adherence and to, and account and for are collocates. The technical sense in linguistics was introduced by the British linguist J.

Firth, although the word had been loosely applied in linguistic contexts previously. This is a collocational restriction. Compare also such collocations as take advantage of. Special cases of collocation e. Compare semantic restriction. Compare informal. In ordinary everyday language, especially between speakers who know each other well, a casual style of speech is both frequent and appropriate.

Are you doing anything tomorrow evening? Compare register. At word level some usage restricts the term to a sequence that functions virtually as a single word e. In other usage the terms are virtually interchangeable. Compare compound; construction. Henry and Margaret met is an example of combinatory coordination, since the only possible interpretation is that they met each other. In I went there with my cousin, with my cousin has a comitative sense. Compare topic. See also modal adjunct. A baby cannot feed itself.

See also gender; feminine; masculine. Compare dual gender. Of or pertaining to communication. Compare comment; given; information structure; new; rheme; theme; topic. See also attitudinal; conative; connotation; denotative; descriptive; expressive; interpersonal; propositional meaning; referential meaning; speech act. Of a teaching method, etc. An adjective or adverb that is in the comparative degree.

The term comparative linguistics usually refers to a branch of linguistics that is concerned with the historical similarities and differences between languages or varieties of languages. This discipline made great advances in the nineteenth century. There is considerable variation in the labelling of different kinds of clauses and sentences that express the notion of comparison.

It was not as cold as it was last year. It was much more expensive than was anticipated. See also compare. Compare gradable. See also comparative clause; comparison. The act or instance of comparing one thing with another. This very general term can be used to cover any grammatical means of comparing things. Thus in Pete is happier than Paul.

Alternatively, it may exclude comparative clauses, and be used in contrast with them. By contrast, performance, what a speaker actually says i. Compare communicative competence; langue. The complements of verbs include phrases and clauses, e. She bought a new laptop We think that the rain will stop by 4 p.

The constituents following nouns that are related to verbs are often analysed as complements, e. They were annoyed by her refusal to answer cf. She refused to answer His allegation that she will resign by Friday is unfounded cf. He alleged that. But other kinds of abstract nouns can also take complements, e. His reluctance to write a reference for me cf. He is reluctant. She is a lawyer All my students seem very clever. They called me a fool I consider tranquillizers dangerous. We regarded them as interlopers. The entire as-phrase is then called a marked predicative complement.

We wanted to help him. Compare non-core complement below. Compare core complement above. See also oblique. See also complementary. See also binary; contradictory. Two forms are in complementary distribution if they have a different shape in a. PLAG The idea of complementary distribution is used not only in science, but also in everyday reasoning. For example, in the famous novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, both men are the surface realizations of one underlying schizophrenic personality, with one realization appearing by night, the other by daylight.

Hyde are complementarily distributed: in morphological terms they could be said to be allomorphs of the same morpheme. For most linguists this is a syntactic concept, but note the semantic perspective in the quotation below. NIDA The forms I and me generally occur in complementation: I occurs in preverbal subject position, me in postverbal object position and after prepositions. The items that, whether, if in interrogative clauses , and for belong to this class. The term is particularly used in Generative Grammar 2.

The choice of the type of IP is determined by the choice of C. The complementizers that and if select. See complementizer; functional category; head. Compare kernel. See also compound preposition. Compare compound sentence. Thus impolite and rudeness contrast both with unanalysable words, long or short, e. He was [longing] [for the meeting to end] The University would not [authorize] [his teaching the students in the park].

Jake is very excited to be here. Compare complementation; complex transitive; ditransitive; intransitive; monotransitive; transitive. They painted the house blue We watched him leave I knew him to be a crook They made him pay I saw him arrested. In other frameworks the underlined strings are clauses. Compare complementation; complex intransitive; ditransitive; intransitive; monotransitive; transitive.

In more recent theory the term module is preferred. See also transformational grammar. See componential analysis. However, the validity of the technique has been criticized. See also semantic. The way in which language is composed of units which incorporate other units. Formed by combining two or more units; especially consisting of two or more parts of equal value—hence, e. Compare complex sentence; simple 2 sentence; and see compound-complex sentence. At a more technical level, terminology is by no means agreed, and even the distinction between compound and complex may be blurred.

See also complex preposition. However, this generalization is not without exceptions. Combine words, bases so as to form a compound word. Various other grammars have adopted the CGEL grammatical framework, e. Designating language which aims to persuade. Compare directive. See also attitudinal; communicative; conation; connotation; emotive; expressive; interpersonal; propositional meaning; referential meaning.

I love cheese, although I know it contains a lot of fat. Although he was angry Although feeling angry Although angry. Concessive clauses indicate that the situation in the matrix clause is contrary to expectation in the light of what is said in the concessive clause. For all his protestations, nobody believed him. He was angry; he did not raise his voice, though. Contrasted with non-conclusive. The term is not in popular use. Compare atelic; durative; perfective; punctual; telic.

Compare count. A distinction is often made between factual conditions and counterfactual conditions. Most conditional clauses posit a direct condition, which means that there is a logical causal link between the conditional clause and main clause. See rhetorical. See also alternative conditional-concessive clause; universal conditional-concessive clause.

If in doubt, say nothing, unless advised otherwise. Other conditional conjunctions include on condition that , providing that, provided that. Traditional grammar takes if to be a subordinating conjunction, not a preposition, and many modern works follow this analysis; if is therefore commonly regarded as forming part of the protasis. If I see them, I will tell them. If I saw them, I would tell them iii third conditional also called the would have-condition : involves a past perfect in the conditional clause, and would have in the main clause, e.

If I had seen them, I would have told them. If you listen, you learn things If you had paid attention, you would know. But this analysis is out of favour today. See also alternative conditional-concessive clause; condition; universal conditional-concessive clause. I saw him; He saw me. See also free variation; variant. However, there are also cases where a direct correspondence is absent.

In CGEL. The parts conjoins are thus distinguished from the whole conjoint. This traditional term is not now considered applicable to English. See also conjugation. Compare decline; declension. Neither sense is in current use for English grammar. See also conjugate; paradigm. Moreover or Above all , I owe a debt of gratitude to my parents. I would like, therefore, to close this meeting.

I must, nevertheless, point out that it will affect your credit rating. Joining together, juxtaposition. See also sense 3. Compare coordination. See also attitudinal; communicative; conative; descriptive; emotive; interpersonal meaning; propositional meaning; referential meaning.

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See also immediate constituent. It was the milkman who rang the doorbell In some theories, e. See also construction grammar; syntagm. At the beginning of II [the period —]. This is ambiguous. But when the relative word expresses place, the use is possibly nonstandard, e. The process occurs in speech owing to hesitation between two semantically similar forms.

Examples of such words that appear to have arisen spontaneously though they would now be used, if at all, self-consciously include insinuendo and portentious. Also called attitudinal disjunct. Example: Regrettably, nobody bothered to tell them. The distinction between content and grammatical words is blurred, rather than rigid. A context-free grammar is a grammar containing rules only of this simple type. See also context-sensitive. Also called context-dependent.

The term is sometimes used to describe elements of a small group of linguistic items that are used to extend a conversation, e. Compare restrictive; sentential relative. A term used in the domain of English Language Teaching. A contracted form of are not.. Also called abbreviated form, contracted form, or short form. My father is older than my mother and My father is younger than my mother. Two words that are opposite in meaning to another are called contradictories, e. Compare counterfactual; factive; factual. I adore jazz, whereas my husband prefers classical music.

The Germans won four medals. By contrast, the Russians won twenty-six. Compare comparative linguistics; historical linguistics. This kind of linkage is regulated by a component of the grammar called Control Theory. See cooperative principle, the. Compare binary; complementary. Conversion is a very old process in English, as the date range of the examples given below shows: Nouns from verbs: a bounce E16 , a meet M19 , a retread E20 , a swim M16; M18 in current sense.


A distinction is sometimes made between full conversion, as here, and partial conversion. In the latter a word takes on only some of the characteristics of the new word class. Compare colligation. Such limitations are called co-occurrence restrictions, co-occurrence relations, or co-occurrence rules. Compare colligation; selectional restriction. Cooperative Principle, the Pragmatics.

An unspoken code of communicative behaviour guaranteeing that speakers are truthful, informative, relevant, and lucid, especially in conversation. Also called the Conversational Principle. Grice — He suggested that, in general, speakers cooperate by adhering to four maxims of conversation: the Maxim of Quality, the Maxim of Quantity, the Maxim of Relevance, and the Maxim of Manner. Of course, speakers sometimes lie or deliberately mislead, but the Cooperative Principle is so strong that people usually try to make sense of what they hear.

See also implicature; relevance theory. One of the constituent parts of a coordination structure. Also called conjoining. When several coordinators are used, we speak of polysyndetic coordination e. See also combinatory coordination; conjunction; multiple coordination; pseudo-coordination; segregatory coordination; subordination.

Other items share certain. See also marginal coordinator. John thinks that he is intelligent] has two possible readings. Simoni said that hei would help. I bought a new laptop, and Leo did so too i. The study of the English language has been transformed in recent decades by the collection of large quantities of authentic texts in corpora on which grammatical, pragmatic, lexicographic, historical, etc. See also neo-firthian; survey of english usage, the.

However, this attitude is arguably somewhat disingenuous, since even the most permissive description must be based on some decisions about what to include. Compare acceptability; grammatical. That is a correlative; made up of, or joined by, correlatives. The eclipse was watched by everyone. The italicized clause in the following example instantiates the phenomenon: If Leigh likes the food, he can come for lunch next week.

See also gradience; subordination. In the plural, count nouns have the potential for combining with certain determinatives 1 , some of them exclusive to the plural, e. See mass; plural. See also count. A term introduced by Otto Jespersen. Thus If Henry had been on that plane, he would have been killed. Compare contrafactive. See also factual. A term sometimes used in grammatical analysis. The term was introduced in by Noam Chomsky. SIEGEL Like any other vernacular language, a creole has a full lexicon and a complex set of grammatical rules, and is not at all restricted in use, having a complete range of informal functions.

As with any language, there are usually several varieties, but they can generally be distinguished according to their closeness to the language on which they are based. See acrolect; basilect; hyperlect; mesolect. Most creoles have developed from contact between a European language especially English, French, or Portuguese and another often African language. English-based creoles are found in the Caribbean—the most widely spoken being Jamaican Creole—and in other ex-colonial territories. HUDSON There is no research evidence of changes which have happened during creolisation which cannot be matched by changes to a pidgin without native speakers.

For example, My employer has raised my salary might be uttered in preference to My employer raised my salary in a situation in which the rise in salary has only just become known. Similarly, My grandmother has lived in Oxford all her life means that she is still alive and living in Oxford. Compare: She lived in Oxford all her life. The concept, however, is not easy to pin down, and certainly past tenses can also have present effects or results e.

For example, in Case Grammar, Tom is a dative in both the following sentences: Tom was attacked by the dog We forced Tom to listen. See also illocution. Of a clause: that is formally a declarative. Compare exclamative; imperative; interrogative. See also declaration. See also clause type. See also decline. Compare conjugate; conjugation; paragigm. See also declension. Compare conjugate; conjugation. Deep structures can be used to explain the way in which sentences are interpreted.

Each of these two interpretations was supposed to have its own syntactic representation in deep structure. Similarly, two sentences with identical surface structures such as John is eager to please and John is easy to please have different deep structures. The dog bit the man The man was bitten by the dog.

More loosely, deep and surface structure are often used as terms in a simple binary opposition, with the deep structure representing meaning, and the surface structure being the actual sentence we see. Also called restrictive, integrated. For example, in my blind friend, the adjective may well be understood to identify uniquely one particular friend. Compare adnominal, appositive clause. I had to call a taxi.

See also indefinite article. Compare specific. I have spoken to my bank manager. In fact, I spoke to him again yesterday. Indicating greater or lesser intensity, as one category of adverb meaning. See also degree of modality. Factual statements Today is Friday are unmodalized, whereas clauses with a clearly. See also kind of modality; strength of modality. Tense is also a deictic category. See also deixis. Wait here! All the children enjoyed the outing, and the parents too.

For example, instead of saying I looked, you can say I had a look; instead of I'll think about it, you can say I'll give it some thought. Verbs used in this way include do, have, give, make, and take, and when so used they retain little of their usual meaning. Compare grammatical word. Compare depth; exponence; rank. A misnomer. We really need to repair this leak very soon Those teachers know nothing about history.

In some models this, these, that, and those are regarded as belonging to either the pronoun class or to the determinative 1 class in all their uses. An older term for this was denominative. See also attitudinal meaning; communicative meaning; conative; emotive; illocutionary meaning; interpersonal meaning. Compare reference; sense. In the analysis of modal meaning and use, deontic modality is usually contrasted with epistemic modality.

Compare embedded. See also lexical verb; verb. See also inflection. Examples: alleviation from alleviate interference from interfere sub-editor from editor unhelpful from helpful. Derivation produces a new lexeme e. In later theory both active and passive sentences are derived from more abstract representations. See also: derivative. See also descriptivism; linguistics; synchronic linguistics. Compare ideational. See also communicative meaning; conative; connotation; emotive; illocutionary meaning. Proper nouns often combine with descriptive words which we will call descriptors, and which also begin with a capital letter, to make composite names like Senator Morse, Dallas Road.

In CGEL the nomenclature is reversed: the word class label is determiner, whereas the function label is determinative. See determiner 2. There is disagreement about how to analyse certain elements such as my, your, and his when these are placed before.

The multiplicity of labels resulting from these different approaches can be confusing. See also determiner. These two words together form a DP inside the NP. Compare determiner phrase. In CaGEL. In CaGEL the nomenclature is reversed: the word class label is determinative, whereas the function label is determiner. See determinative 1. See also central 1. The class is not entirely closed, given that, for example, numbers belong to an open-ended set. However, not only do they differ from the class of adjectives with regard to the kinds of meaning they convey, but they also.

See also determiner phrase; determinative. Thus the phrase the computer is a DP headed by the, not a noun phrase headed by computer. Compare determinative phrase. See also determinative. Deviant sentences are often marked with a question mark? Diachronistic has also been used.

Compare comparative 2. See also saussurean. Dialects may be regional, or based on class differences they are then usually called social dialects or class dialects , or a mixture of the two.

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Vocabulary may also differ across dialects, e. For some the term dialect implies deviation from some standard educated norm, but linguists regard the standard variety as just another dialect. Compare standard english. A term coined by Charles Ferguson in to describe a situation in which two or more varieties of the same language are used by the same speakers under different conditions. Compare acrolect; code-switching. Some diminutives are stylistically neutral e.

Proper names often have diminutive forms: e.

Compare hypocoristic. A clause issuing a command or order. Because directives in the sense understood by the layperson are often expressed syntactically by imperative clauses e. Speak up! Leave me alone! Stop teasing the cat! However, what is in meaning effectively a directive, command, or order can be expressed grammatically in other ways, e. Conversely, imperative clauses can have other pragmatic functions, such. Please give generously or invitations Have some more coffee. It is for this reason that many grammarians insist on distinguishing structure and usage, using different terminology for the two domains.

In some theories, with a wider meaning. When an indirect object is present, it is normally placed before the DO e. See also cognate object. I spend more money on clothes than I can really afford. HOEY Discourse. Firstly it refers to all aspects of language organization. This can include looking at grammatical and semantic connections between sentences, just as syntax is the study of such connections within a sentence.

It grew out of the work in different disciplines, in the s and early s, including linguistics, semiotics, psychology, anthropology and sociology. Compare coherence; cohesion. See also field of discourse. Compare gradience; prototype. Disjuncts contrast in some grammars e. Choice between two possibilities, or an instance of this, typically signalled by the word or. See disjunctive Compare conjunction 2.

The terms disjunctive and disjunction are taken from logic. Further distinctions can be made. With inclusive disjunction both alternatives are possible, e. Either the train is late—or my watch is fast perhaps both They certainly visited us in or maybe both. With disjunctive interrogatives, the presence of either allows the possibility that both alternatives are true: Did you visit either Edinburgh or Glasgow?

This is also called anticipated dislocation. Dislocation is particularly a feature of informal spoken English. See also nucleus. The distribution of two units may overlap, giving overlapping distribution, or the two may be mutually exclusive for example, a or an cannot occur with the. Compare complementary distribution. See also slot-and-filler. Words like each and every are distributive words. Phrases like once a week and three times per year are distributive expressions. Distributive plural concord is common in expressions such as The children all had such eager faces where clearly each child had only one face , but a distributive singular is often possible, e.

They all had such an eager expression. Also called double transitive verb. Ditransitive complementation is sometimes said to include indirect objects followed by various types of clause, e. However, it should be noted that grammarians disagree over how to describe verb complementation, and not everyone would agree with the analysis of the examples above as involving a ditransitive pattern.

Compare complementation; complex intransitive; complex transitive; intransitive; monotransitive; transitive. The situation or sphere of activity to which an utterance relates, with regard to the way it affects the use of language. LEECH et al. This has to do with how language varies according to the activity in which it plays a part.

We can thus refer to the domains of chemistry, law, religion, and so on. Compare genre. LYONS In recent years, there has been a good deal of work devoted to the investigation of lexical systems. Also called do-insertion. Examples: Do you understand? This is an older term, not in general use. Compare blend. Occasionally a double negative occurs quite legitimately in a single clause where in a sense the two negatives do cancel each other out, e. Nobody has no friends, do they? Examples of doublets that have arisen from a single parent form within English are: human m16 , humane lme metal me , mettle m16 mood in grammar m16 , mode lme patron me , pattern m16 shade oe , shadow oe.

Examples of doublets that arose through borrowing from other languages at different times: faction L15 , fashion me hostel me , hotel m17 ration m16 , reason me. D-Structure See deep structure. See also gender; masculine; feminine. Compare binary; plurale tantum. He didn't say.