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Kathlamet Texts (Classic Reprint)
Nabu P Sims P Kroeber, and Margaret Mead, he set the agenda for all subsequent American cultural anthropology. Boas is the author of hundreds of scientific monographs and articles. He died in Kathlamet Texts. Franz Boas.
Kathlamet language - Wikipedia
The second subclass of stems occurs with prefixes only marking 3rd person. The plural suffix for human beings is found only in first stems of subclass.
The function of the second stems of subclass is noticeably demonstrative. The stems for one are the only numerals not classed as particles, and these occur with 3rd person singular prefixes. They distinguish masculine and feminine gender. From Boas :. Pronominal affixes are used in Kathlamet for identifying arguments.
Kathlamet Indian Language (Cathlamet)
It doesn't conjoin noun phrases. One entity is with a full noun phrase and established as topic. A dual or plural pronoun is enough to point to the joint participation.
Below are two examples from Boas :. The same strategy can be used to identify 3rd person members of first and second plural arguments.
Because there is the context, pronominal reference is sufficient to identify them. Below are examples from Boas :. The suffix —tiX relation to time and —pa relation to space.
And —tiX after vowel, -pa after consonants. The Lower Chinook people were reduced to a handful of survivors by epidemics in , resulting in the loss of their distinct languages and their disappearance as a clan entity. The Upper Chinook people have survived a while longer, but of their many languages, only Wasco-Wishram survives. In fact, Wasco-Wishram is the only surviving branch of the entire Chinookan language family. Sometimes classified as distinct dialects, the dual dialects of Wasco and Wishram are mutually intelligible so as to be considered the same essential language.
They differ only in one phoneme and a few lexical terms Hymes, In there were 69 speakers 7 monolinguals of Wasco-Wishram. The final native speaker of Wasco, Gladys Thompson, died in , but not before the language was passed down in part to Deanie Johnson and Val Switzler, both members of the Warm Springs Indian reservation. Both began providing instruction in Wasco-Wishram to other members of the tribe in , but neither Johnson nor Switzler is considered fully fluent.
The last fully fluent speakers of the Wishram dialect, meanwhile, lived in the Yakima reservation in Washington State; all died sometime between and The use and demise of the other Chinookan dialects is too poorly documented to determine when they were last spoken, but collections of text and some grammatical treatments remain, most notably for Shoalwater, Kathlamet, and Clackamas.
Mithun, Marianne. The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved Hymes, Dell. Keith Chu The Bulletin Bend, OR. Kristian Foden-Vencil