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Lesions indicating both diabetic retinopathy as well as age-related macular degeneration were found in 19 of the 20 baboons. OCT scans provide highly sensitive, ultra high resolution 3D images of a tissue, like the eye. Kiel said. Kiel explained that in order to start seeing macular degeneration AMD , you have to have an animal like the baboon that has a macula and that lives long enough.

We would love to slow or stop the progression. Within the baboon colony, if we were try a therapy, we also now have the technology in ophthalmology to measure it and see if it works before moving into human populations. Kiel explained the usefulness of the baboon model when discussing the particular progression of macular degeneration from the dry form to the wet form.

Monkeys have certain traits and characteristics that make them essential and irreplaceable in medical research. Lowering blood pressure is vitally important to individuals and our society. High blood pressure is a major factor in heart disease — the number one killer in the U. And it's not just heart disease; high blood pressure leads to stroke, kidney damage, memory problems , and many other illnesses [ 16 ]. Decades ago, researchers made a breakthrough discovery that long-term blood pressure regulation is nearly identical in humans, baboons, and other NHPs.

In fact, adult NHPs frequently develop hypertension similar to humans. Subsequent studies with monkeys have helped billions around the world lower blood pressure and reduce their risk of deadly complications. Scientists recently discovered that baboons share another unique trait with humans — a characteristic in their red blood cells that can lead to salt-sensitivity and an inherited form of hypertension that is particularly difficult to treat. Current research is looking for new targets to control this type of high blood pressure.

Research with monkeys provides another key benefit — lifespan. High blood pressure becomes more common as we age and researchers are able to work with older baboons to gain essential information about the mechanisms driving this age-based increase — vital to the health of our aging population. And greater predictability. Type 2 diabetes develops in monkeys just as it does in humans, even following the same age patterns, that is to say, more disease as we get older one-fourth of U. NHPs with diabetes even develop the same complications that are common in humans: eye disease, kidney disease, nerve damage and pain, and blood vessel disease, among others [ 18 ].

NHPs and humans have very similar systems that regulate blood sugar.

When we use non-human primates

For example, the structure and function of the group of cells in the monkey pancreas called islets that produce insulin are very similar to human islets. The islets in mice, rats, pigs, and other animals share some similarities with humans, but there are important differences, making monkeys a critical model for developing treatment and prevention methods, and for testing new therapies for people with diabetes.

Nonhuman primates are the ideal model for testing new therapies for people with diabetes, including the artificial pancreas, drugs and devices. Type 2 diabetes and the U. More than a third of U.


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As with diabetes research, monkeys provide a critically important study model for human obesity. Monkeys that are fed a diet similar to the typical American diet respond like humans, gaining weight and later progressing to type 2 diabetes. Researchers are examining the role of gastrointestinal proteins called glucagon-like peptides in the development of obesity in bonnet macaques. Bonnet macaques are unique among NHPs because they have a strong genetic predisposition to obesity.

This research is looking for obesity treatments that will be as effective as invasive bariatric surgery, but with far less risk. In conclusion, because NHPs are the most readily available models with the greatest psychological and genetic similarities to humans, they play an indispensable role in the process of medical research and development.

Powers, D. Eugene Redmond Jr. Shade, Daniel Scoles, and Lary C. Discovery of the Rh factor, blood-typing knowledge critical for safe blood transfusions. Development of antipsychotic medication chlorpromazine and its tranquilizing derivatives. Transmissibility of human prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, discovered. All of our ability to address diseases in applied research comes from efforts in basic science research.

Understanding of the inner workings of the basal ganglia, the part of the brain that coordinates movement. Discovery of mechanisms of opiate withdrawal and the anti-withdrawal effects of clonidine. Development of cyclosporine and other anti-rejection drugs helpful for organ transplants. Identification of physiological and psychological co-factors in depression, anxiety and phobias.

First animal model for research on Parkinson's disease, enabling doctors to more accurately research human Parkinson's disease. Addition of taurine to infant formulas. Taurine is necessary for normal eye development. First treatment of naturally diabetic NHPs with a hormone-like insulin stimulus that is now in wide use both for diabetes and obesity treatment GLP-1 agonist. Without continued nonhuman primate research, many important translational discoveries in the field of transplantation will never happen. These preclinical investigations are critical to the many patients who are currently waiting for transplantation and the many others who are facing the possibility of organ rejection after transplantation.

Estrogen discovered to control an enzyme key to making serotonin, the brain chemical that regulates mood. Represents first step to providing effective medications for depression at the end of the menstrual cycle, and postpartum and postmenopausal depression. Demonstration in monkeys of the high efficacy of the HIV drug tenofovir to prevent or treat infection. First controlled study to reveal that even moderate levels of alcohol are dangerous in pregnancy.

Primate embryonic stem cells studied extensively for the first time, advancing efforts to better understand reproduction and genetic disorders. NHPs shown to naturally develop diabetes, which is the same disease as in humans, thus opening the path to research for new treatments. Naturally regenerative mechanism discovered in the mature NHP brain, spurring new research toward curing Alzheimer's and other degenerative brain disorders.

Gene that boosts dopamine production and strengthens brain cells used to successfully treat monkeys showing symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Monkey model developed to study the effects of malaria in pregnant women and their off-spring. The most common and debilitating complications of diabetes can now be studied in NHPs. Better medications improve lives of people with severe depression, bipolar disorder, and other psychiatric illnesses. Earlier diagnoses and better treatments help those with polycystic ovary syndrome, endome triosis, and breast cancer.

Secondhand smoke shown to affect prenatal, neonatal and child lung development, cognitive function and brain development. Better understanding of the effects of BPA, a chemical found in plastic, on prenatal development improves health of children and adults. This guide addresses day-to-day aspects of caring for laboratory animals. The USDA's Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service enforces the Animal Welfare Act with unannounced compliance inspections of all regulated entities using animals in research, testing or teaching at least yearly [ 22 ].

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But its impact on human health is enormous. The Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International is an independent non-government accrediting organization. While voluntary, this accreditation includes broader requirements than the regulations. Today's researchers monitor not just the nutritional and environmental needs of NHPs but psychological needs, too.

Every institution involved in nonhuman primate research is required by the Animal Welfare Act as well as Public Health Service policy to appoint and empower an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee [ 24 ] that reviews and approves the research. Scientists must justify their use of primates and also explain why alternative forms of research for example, studying cells or using computer simulations are not able to achieve their scientific goals.

They must also confirm that their research does not unnecessarily duplicate previous research [ 25 ]. This article was originally published as a report by the Foundation for Biomedical Research. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Pathog Immun v.

Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research, Volume 2

Pathog Immun. Published online Aug Allan , 6 Thaddeus G. Golos , 7 Jeff H. Kordower , 8 Robert E. Shade , 9 Michael E. Goldberg , 10 Matthew R. Bailey , 11 and Paul Bianchi James S. Thaddeus G. Jeff H. Robert E.


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    Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Volume 1, Biology and Management, 2nd Edition

    Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Corresponding Author Matthew R. Bailey gro.

    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The sponsors of this report endorse carefully regulated research with nonhuman primates. Keywords: Nonhuman primates, HIV, cancer, brain function, ethics, research. Open in a separate window. Improving Pregnancy Outcomes. Mapping Out Brain Function. These cases are always guided by national regulations or scientific requirements and are kept to a minimum.


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    5. Record number of monkeys being used in U.S. research | Science | AAAS.
    6. We use non-human primates that have been specifically bred for use in research. We would only use primates caught in the wild under exceptional circumstances and only with specific authorisations from the appropriate authorities. At the end of October , we voluntarily introduced a new policy stating that we would no longer carry out studies or fund studies using great apes.

      Great apes are a sub-group of non-human primates which covers gorillas , chimpanzees , orangutans , and bonobos.

      Use of non-human primates

      In the vast majority of biomedical studies, it has been chimpanzees that have been studied. However, we also recognise that due to the advancement of animal models and other techniques in biomedical research - the case for using great apes is no longer clear. We provide answers to some of the most commonly asked questions about our research involving animals.