Food is the crucible where sustenance, identity and history meet.
An individual can exercise his or her cultural identity through the daily act of preparing or consuming food. Thus, we can use food in turn to explore how a community chooses or is constrained to define itself within a specific context of space and time. The nature of adherence to its identity can further influence when and how a community might integrate with its immediate non-self environment e.
India is an ideal region to pose such questions for its diverse cuisines constituted by ethnocultural and religious communities. These communities are often localized within the larger Hindu majority populace having their sources in various historical events, e. I use three most elementary components of culinary practice ingredients, treated ingredients, and recipe structure for this comparison using cookbooks and representative recipes as my primary source. Subsequently, I contextualize my observation with respect to four modes of cultural transmissions.
Ishan Chakrabarti, University of Texas at Austin. Faced with both the erosion of Eurocentrism within the traditional disciplines and the rise of geographically-centered area studies departments, scholars seeking to work across geographic areas continue to find themselves at a difficult impasse. The replacement of a European center with a non-European center is of little avail. I seek to understand the exchange of ideas across South Asia and Europe in the 16thth centuries through the genre of autobiographical travelogue.
In this time period, merchants began publishing hugely popular narratives of their travels containing autobiographical anecdotes, descriptions of foreign lands and anthropological information about their inhabitants. As these travelers roamed across Europe, the Middle East and South Asia, situating their literary work within any one of these areas confines their legacies. To adequately understand this nomadic literary genre, we must abstract ourselves from the geography and examine the thematic aspects of our roaming objects.
Hence, I suggest it is imperative to look at the new modes of life being formed by these author-merchants: the philosophically-rich questions of the categories that structured their lives. Significantly, I find that the accounts of these travelers trace an arc that emphasizes individuality as an ethical concept.
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Ejected from all geographical confines and thrust into a world of constantly changing places, the travelers confront their individuality. Autobiographical writing becomes an ethical practice by which they reflect on and build this individuality: I seek to annotate this process. This paper proposes a far different understanding of what unites a department like MESAAS in an extremely historically and materially contextualized way.
Is this just a happy accident or is there actually a scholarly rubric through which to understand this phenomenon? Why do sectarian Hindu nationalist organizations succeed in some states within India? Within South India, their ability to polarize communities or provoke violence by manipulating religious symbols is much weaker in Tamil Nadu than in Karnataka. The explanation is threefold. A I argue that the differential level of provision of public goods explains differential success.
State failure in service delivery pushes the socio-economically disadvantaged Hindus in Karnataka into the clutches of these organizations. In contrast, the efficient functioning of the populist state and its patronage machine in Tamil Nadu eliminates the need for alternative service providing organizations. B The significant role played by other civil society organizations in Tamil Nadu, particularly the Left trade unions and film clubs, is very striking.
This phenomenon is largely absent in Karnataka, where the right wing is able to appropriate civil society space and co-opt both disadvantaged youth as well as middle-class professionals. C Lastly, I argue that the mode of operation of Hindutva organizations in the two states differs in fundamental ways, thus resulting in different outcomes.
In the late eighteenth century, the colonial encounter generated a fundamental shift in epistemologies of gender in South Asia. Before this period, ambitious and influential monarchs, from the Mughal emperor Shah Alam to Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore, recognized androgynous individuals as being exceptionally gifted and powerful.
By cultivating relationships with a variety of androgynous individuals, these monarchs made androgyny central to the constitution of their courts and polities. Several Europeans traveling within South Asia in the eighteenth century were unable to fathom these ritual expressions of androgyny and were often instrumental in creating discourses that likened androgyny with castration. With their elevation to political power in South Asia in the late eighteenth century, British officials of the East India Company increasingly described androgynous individuals as marginal and passive.
Unable to appreciate the ritual power of androgyny within indigenous courts, British officials ignored the high status of many androgynous individuals, based on ties of intimacy, slavery and loyalty to the monarch. By assuming anatomical difference and not ritual power as the foremost measure of androgyny, British officials ossified androgyny as a form of embodiment and effectively created the unique body of the eunuch, under which all forms of androgyny could be classified. The creation of the eunuch body represented the encroachment of European epistemologies of, and cultural practices around the body, gender and status into diverse South Asian contexts.
Epistemologically, this reflected a momentous shift from an understanding of androgyny linked to ritual functionality to one linked to corporeal dysfunctionality. Furthermore, through a circumscription of androgynous individuals from positions of authority within indigenous courts and their criminalization in , British officials secured enduring material legacies for androgynous individuals in the subcontinent.
I will argue that his desire to Persianize Urdu is a reflection of a sociolinguistic landscape in which vernacular literatures were becoming more assertive but Persian remained a high prestige language which was perceived as capable of elevating vernacular composition. Although Indian literatures had drawn on Persian tropes and vocabulary for centuries, what appears to be new in the mid-eighteenth century is a sense that Persian could be a vehicle by which vernacular literature could be made more respectable.
Daanish Faruqi, Washington University in St. With the last Mughal emperor Zafar exiled to Rangoon, and with the great Mughal cities of Delhi and Lucknow in ruins, mere shadows of their former selves, Islamic civilization in India had been dealt a near deathblow. In response, Indian Muslims were forced to protect their Indo-Muslim culture and identity against British imperialist incursions. Under the yoke of colonialism, Muslims refused to succumb to British advances and instead took up efforts to radically reassert their subjectivity.
Under these auspices they spearheaded several reform and revival movements, all with the putative goal of emphasizing a distinctly South Asian Islamic identity. Sufi orders, moreover, featured prominently in this revival movement. This paper sets to trace the impact of the Great Mutiny of on the development of South Asian Sufism.
Furthermore, this paper explores the implications of the legalization of Sufism on South Asian Islamic identity.
In recent years, scholarship has made great strides in excavating the intellectual history of early modern Sanskrit knowledge as well as its socio-political significance in various regions of the Indian subcontinent. This paper contends that a sustained philological engagement with the work of prominent Sanskrit intellectuals can provide new perspectives on the social and religious role of intellectual production in the early modern period.
The modern states of Pakistan and Israel share common concepts in regard of state and nation just as in regard of civic and religious identity discourses. In addition to this they show significant parallels within those historic processes which led to their creation in and and thus provide an adequate basis in terms of a cross-country comparison.
In spite of the secular visions of their founding movements a fertile ground based on religion provided the cultural basis for nation- and land-oriented ideologies. The creation of a homeland for a religious community and the thus connected civic identity of its citizens as a religious and nationalist synthesis form a contrast to the common character of the international community of states and reflect the search for a national identity.
In terms of an intellectual exchange, basic ideas of the Jewish enlightenment influenced the claim of Muhammad A. Since both states offer a broad ideological platform which includes both, secular as well as religious interpretations, the project focuses on religious parties which try to implement theo-political models of a religious state parallel to the contemporary discourses on nation-building existing in these two states.
Based on research data conducted in field-research in Pakistan, India and Israel this paper emphasizes the transformation of traditional religion-state tensions and cleavages, illustrated by a cross-country comparison within an institutional and sociopolitical framework of analysis. The recent Algerian-Egyptian row in the run up and then later in the aftermath of the world cup play offs game has awakened dormant aspects of the Maghreb-Mashreq division in the geographical zone referred to as the Middle East and North Africa MENA.
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The purpose of this paper is to explore the various forms of the geographical division and its implications for the study and understanding of the MENA region for ultimately better engaging with its societies and elites. Indeed North Africa as an area has presented a tricky challenge to the Middle East studies departments, especially in the UK. While the Middle East region came out as a straightforward unit of research and study, thanks mainly to the fact that English is the means of expression among the Middle Eastern intelligentsia, North Africa had a different colonial experience which not only resulted in French being the lingua franca of the Maghreb intellectuals and leaderships but also marked significantly the nature of the Maghreb societies' ways of thinking, practices, perceptions of themselves and of the other.
This other included also the Mashreq. The clear-cut argument being that the societies of the said region share a single cultural identity. It is a cultural faultline, exacerbated by markedly different experiences of colonisation, decolonisation, Cold War, and the circumstances of the birth of the new state, which explains the division perception. This reality has created mindset frontiers which need be taken into consideration for any serious study of the MENA zone, especially the Maghreb.
In this paper I will discuss the amendment of the Israeli Penal Code in following the killing of a Bedouin burglar by a Jewish farmer, whose farm the burglar had infiltrated. I will analyze the discourse accompanying the amendment as a case study shedding light on the zionist notion of a special time, time outside time, exceptional time—the time of the state of exception. I will argue that in Israel, exceptional time and exceptional space go in tandem, highlighting a unique, perhaps foundational aspect of the cosmology of Zionism.
I wish to demonstrate through an analysis of the discourse that accompanied the amendment that Israeli sovereignty is to be considered in the context of its particular historical cosmology, focusing on the relationship between the concepts of time and boundary, both spatial and legal. In Israel, where the physical borders do not overlap with the legal ones and a constant state of emergency is legally in effect since its foundation in , it is nearly impossible to distinguish between a normal state and a state of exception—as is commonly done in Western theories of sovereignty.
Whereas the European model views a state under the rule of the law as the norm, and the state of exception as sometimes necessary or inherent, but ultimately, well, an exceptional state, I propose viewing the Israeli model in temporal terms that are not based on a conflict of normative time under law with the deviant event. The Israeli application of force, I propose, is closer to the model of law abolishing force associated by Benjamin with divine violence, rather than to the mythic one, usually connected with the institute of the state.
Historians of Islamic philosophy and theology have shown that Hanbalis, mutakallimun, and falasifa exist along a continuum with regard to the primary criteria for philosophical argumentation, i. Rather than avoiding truth claims through an exclusive focus on sociology and discourse analysis, or anachronistically leaning on the crutch of relativism, the historian of Islamic philosophy and theology owes to Ghazali or Ibn Taymiyya et al.
This essay argues that the construction of an analytical Avicennism is both desirable and possible, and that the principles of this method can be abduced from the scholarship of El-Rouayheb, Hallaq, and Street. Furthermore, if the very recent history of analytical Thomism is any indication, we have good reason to believe that an analytical Avicennism can be constructed on its own merits, and in so doing fortify the very sciences for which Ghazali devised his synthesis of philosophical tools and Islamic learning.
The work of Fatima Hamyani, to name just one neglected example, shows that in Arabic this task is already under way. Circulation is the main drive when it comes to the Swahili people of East Africa. For example, Maxine Hairston's "Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing" advocates for students' expressivist writing to be central in a composition course, and believes students "need to write to find out how much they know and to gain confidence in the ability to express themselves effectively" Furthermore, In Empowering Education, Ira Shor delineates a pedagogy in which the teacher facilitates discussion of generative themes produced by the students, using the example of his basic writing course with working-class students at "a low-budget college in New York City" several decades ago From the many linguistic and sociological items…the educators selected some key concerns—generative themes expressed through generative words" For Shor's classroom, "[t]he generative themes [that have] emerg[ed]…from student culture have most often related to sex, abortion, drugs, family, education, careers, work, and the economic crisis" Shor also reviews Paolo Freire's literacy project in Brazil as described in Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed , which enforces the idea that all people are creators of culture through visuals, oral discussion, and creation of word lists that are the basis for which the people begin to use language to express how the dominant culture operates, how their home culture operates, and how these systemic actions impact themselves and the world Freire Shor insists "subject matter is best introduced as problems related to student experience, in language familiar to them" Overall, previous scholars' discussion of multiculturalism in the classroom seems to privilege "cross-cultural interactions" and valuing students' home languages as well as their cultural ideologies.
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However, in Donald Lazere's Political Literacy in Composition and Rhetoric , Lazere criticizes Hairston, Daniell, Schutz, Gere, and other scholars for their approaches because of their singular focus on localism in lieu of more "global" and critical approaches to the study of culture in the composition classroom Lazere's critique of previous scholarship related to multiculturalism pedagogies, in Political Literacy in Composition and Rhetoric and elsewhere, has prompted current composition theorists, both in second-language writing and in the field of composition in general, to consider how multicultural pedagogies can embrace globalism as much as localism.
For example, Lisa Eck's "Thinking Globally, Teaching Locally" describes how Eck teaches world literature courses in which students read cultural narratives and problematize them—in the article, she references her use of Tsitsi Dangarembga's Nervous Conditions in her composition classroom. In her approach, she engages students in the kind of literary criticism that is necessary for analyzing and evaluating critical discourse: "I work to make hybrid postcolonial identities familiar, even analogous at times, to what we understand as the process of identity formation for the average postmodern college student….
I [also] use the Otherness of the cultures reproduced in foreign texts to estrange the American familiar" Furthermore, Jennifer S. Wilson's approach to critical pedagogy in second-language writing as she describes it in her article, "Engaging Second Language Writers in Freshman Composition: A Critical Approach," utilizes a perspective that provides opportunities for the types of writing necessary for students to critically analyze and evaluate ideologies entrenched in the dominant discourse, even as they are learning English as their second language.
For example, in addition to incorporating "local topics," Wilson provides options for students to "investigate language use in certain communities, societies, or cultures" as well as "investigating" the relationships between language and power Because academic discourse is not monolithic in other words, there are curricula that address that the concept of academic discourse can be applied to specific parts of a writing curriculum , many compositionists have created a writing across the curriculum WAC movement that situates writing-intensive instruction in specific academic discourse communities.
According to some writing theorists, reading for pleasure provides a more effective way of mastering the art of writing than does a formal study of writing, language, grammar, and vocabulary. The apprenticeship approach provides one variant of the reading connection, arguing that the composition classroom should resemble pottery or piano workshops—minimizing dependence on excessive self-reflection, preoccupation with audience, and explicit rules.
Students focus their attention on the task at hand, and not on "an inaccessible and confusing multitude of explicit rules and strategies. Many university writing programs include writing in the disciplines WID courses, which focus on the genres and writing procedures that occur within specific fields of research. Many universities not in North America only offer writing instruction via writing centers. Since multimodality has resonated with Composition Studies, many writing centers have developed associated centers to support students' multimodal, multimedia composing.
Some models for this work include the digital studio and the multiliteracy center. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Basic writing. Main article: First-year composition.
Main article: Second language writing. Main article: Writing across the curriculum. Main article: Writing center. Cognitive rhetoric Comics studies Communication studies Composition language Conference on College Composition and Communication Contrastive rhetoric Digital rhetoric English studies Media theory of composition National Writing Project Professional communication Technical communication Technical writing Theories of rhetoric and composition pedagogy Writing assessment Writing center Writing center assessment.
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Written Communication. Welcome to the CCCC website. Parlor Press, College Composition and Communication. Journal of Basic Writing. October Council of Writing Program Administrators. Fall Retrieved September 6, Retrieved Edited by Victor Villanueva and Kristin L. Arola, National Council of Teachers of English, , pp. Arola, National Council of Teachers of English, , pp College English.
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Translated by Ramos, Myra. New York: Bloomsbury. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP. Composition Forum. Composing a community: a history of writing across the curriculum. West Lafayette, Ind. Understanding reading 4th ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.