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All panels show the same section. Many studies have pointed to a mantle plume source for the Yellowstone hotspot e. Some studies have suggested there is no definitive evidence for or against a mantle plume e. Humphreys et al. Christiansen et al. The most compelling evidence against a 40 plume source has been the lack of a clear seismic image of the plume in regional P-wave tomography studies Christiansen et al.

While these regional studies show a low-velocity anomaly to at least km depth, the limitations in the data may preclude resolution of deeper anomalies. Global P wave tomography models e. Bijwaard et al. Moreover, newer travel-time tomography studies e. Smith et al. Global S-velocity models Kustowski et al. Global shear attenuation models such as by Dalton et al. As the resolution of the tomography images increases, and the earthquake sources and their distribution are further studied, additional insights into Yellowstone may be obtained.

References: Anders, M. Parabolic distribution of circumeastern Snake River Plain seismicity and Late Quaternary faulting: migratory pattern and association with the Yellowstone hotspot. Anders, M. Magmatism and extension: The thermal and mechanical effects of the Yellowstone hotspot. Bijwaard, H. Spakman, and E. Engdahl , Closing the gap between regional and global travel time tomography, J. Christiansen, R. Surv, Denver, CO. Foulger, and J. Evans , Upper-mantle origin of the Yellowstone hotspot, Geol. Dalton, C. Dziewonski , The global attenuation structure of the upper mantle, J.

Farrell, S. Earthquake swarm and b-value characterization of the Yellowstone volcanotectonic system. Dueker, D. Schutt, and R. Smith , Beneath Yellowstone; evaluating plume and nonplume models using teleseismic images of the upper mantle, GSA Today, 10, 1—7. Miller, D. Smith, , P and S velocity structure of the Yellowstone volcanic field from local earthquake and controlled source tomography, J. Montelli, R. Nolet, F. Dahlen, G. Masters, E. Engdahl, and S. Hung , Finite-frequency tomography reveals a variety of plumes in the mantle, Science, , —, doi Morgan, W.

Nettles, M. Dziewonski, Radially anisotropic shear-velocity structure of the upper mantle globally and beneath North America, J. Res, , B, doi Panning, M. Romanowicz, "A three dimensional radially anisotropic model of shear velocity in the whole mantle," Geophys. Int, , , Pitt, A. The Yellowstone Park earthquake of June 30, Smith, R.

Seismicity of the Intermountain Seismic Belt. In: Slemmons, D. Geodynamics of the Yellowstone hotspot and mantle plume: seismic and GPS imaging, kinematics, and mantle flow. Schmandt, B. Complex subduction and small-scale convection revealed by body-wave tomography of the western United States upper mantle. Kustowski, B. Ekstrom, and A. Ritsema, H. Deuss, and J. Woodhouse, S40RTS: a degree shear velocity model for the mantle from new Rayleigh wave dispersion, teleseismic traveltimes, and normal-mode splitting function measurements, Geophys.

Smith , Seismic evidence for fluid migration accompanying subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera, J. Waite, G. Smith , Vp and Vs structure of the Yellowstone hot spot from teleseismic tomography: Evidence for an upper mantle plume, J. InSAR measurements of Yellowstone Caldera Contributed by Ge Jin As one of the most volcanically active areas in North America, it is no surprise that the Yellowstone area has a high level of seismicity, hydrothermal activity, as well as vertical surface deformation.

The Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar InSAR method provides us precise and continuous measurement of vertical surface displacement over the whole Yellowstone caldera area. Comparing the phase difference between two InSAR photo pairs shot at the same place can provide information on the relative vertical deformation at that location during the period between the taking of the two photos.

These measurements can be related to the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system [5]. By gathering the results from several papers, the surface vertical displacement of Yellowstone caldera from to , we summarized in Figure 28 [2, 3, 4, 5]. Significant displacement can be observed over the time. Lifting and subsidence happening at the same place back and forth in short periods can be modeled numerically, providing information of where the magma source is and how much volume has been brought into or taken out of the system. In the period from to , four different episodes of caldera deformation can be identified: subsidence of 2.

The caldera-wide subsidence can be explained by either magma crystallization or magma chamber depressurization beneath the caldera, or both. And the associated uplift at Norris could have been caused by the pressurization of the Norris hydrothermal system. This detail might hint that the deep magma source is directly connected to or is much closer to the Sour Creek dome rather than Mallard Lake [1].

With the constraint of surface deformation, the magma and hydrothermal structure as well as the activity underneath the caldera is estimated. Figure 29 illustrates a concept model to explain the surface deformation of the Yellowstone area. InSAR measurements of the Yellowstone region from to Concept model for Yellowstone Deformation. References [1] M. Aly and E. Spatio-temporal evolution of yellowstone deformation between and from insar and gps observations. Bulletin of Volcanology, pages 1—13, Chang, R. Smith, J. Farrell, and C. An extraordinary episode of yellowstone caldera uplift, —, from gps and insar observations.

Geophysical Research Letters, L, Smith, C. Wicks, J. Accelerated uplift and magmatic intrusion of the yellowstone caldera, to Science, , Wicks, W. Thatcher, and D. Migration of fluids beneath yellowstone caldera inferred from satellite radar interferometry. Thatcher, D. Dzurisin, and J. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at yellowstone caldera.

Nature, —75, On the northeast side of the park, in an area rimmed by only the 0. Near the center of the park, where the 2. These local reservoirs are typically situated at m depth, have a temperature ranging from oC, and have different chemical characteristics depending on the geology of their surrounding formations.

The Yellowstone hydrothermal system is fed by recharge from meteoric water. Surface water from rain and snowmelt infiltrates into the subsurface and eventually percolates down to depth, where the hotspot provides a large geothermal heat source. The isotopic composition of cold, shallow groundwater clusters around the local meteoric water line, while geothermal waters are typically enriched in 18O and 2H from boiling and exchange with aquifer materials [2].

The surface manifestations of hot water dominated systems are geothermal spring waters, mudpots, acid boiling pools, and geysers. Geothermal spring waters form when heated water rises from depth to the surface. In Yellowstone, these are typically from local reservoirs in rhyolitic lava flows. When the waters outlet at the surface, they are oC, have neutral to basic pH 7 - 9.

Dissolution of rhyolite has enriched these waters in SiO2- they typically have ppm SiO2, which is times that usually seen in groundwater. Mammoth thermal waters have different chemical characteristics because the flowpath to the surface is through limestone, dolomite, and gypsum-bearing shales instead of through rhyolite. In addition, the water in this hydrothermal reservoir is of lower temperature, up to a maximum of oC, which allows Mg and Ca to remain in solution rather than precipitating out as silicate minerals.

When these waters reach the surface and cool, they precipitate Ca and Mg carbonates in the form of surficial travertine deposits. Unlike geothermal spring waters, which come directly from depth, the water in these pools is shallow groundwater that has been heated by steam from the geothermal water.

Deeper hydrothermal reservoirs are in a reducing state so sulfur is present in the form of H2S. When steam rises off the water, it carries with it H2S gas. When the gas hits shallow groundwater, it oxidizes to H2SO4, making the water highly acidic. In areas with plentiful water, this process forms acid boiling pools. In areas with less water, the process forms mud pots: the acid dissolves the surrounding rock into fine particles of clay and silica, and since there is little water, this creates a concentrated solution that is visible as seething mudpots.

Waters from both of these features are depleted in Cl because shallow groundwater is not Cl enriched, and although hydrothermal fluids were enriched with Cl, it was left behind when the steam evaporated off. Geysers form where the upward flow of geothermal water is restricted such that the water is unable to freely rise to the surface.

Since the water cannot rise as fast as it would like, the system becomes pressurized and the water becomes superheated. This superheated water is overlain by cooler water near the surface.

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As the superheated water expands, it pushes some of the cooler water out onto the surface. This relieves some of the overburden, releasing pressure and allowing the superheated water to flash to steam. When the steam rises, it also pushes out the overlying cooler water and creates a geyser eruption. Yellowstone is ideal for geyser formation because it meets the four conditions critical for geyser formation: 1 heat source, 2 frequent seismicity, 3 source of water recharge, and 4 capped fluid reservoir [3].

The first two conditions are met because of the hotspot, the third by 45 rain and snowmelt, and the fourth by alternating layers of permeable rhyolite flows and impermeable ash-flow tuffs - the rhyolite flows act as water reservoirs, while the ash-flow tuffs act as reservoir caps. Yellowstone boasts the largest active geyser in the world — Steamboat Geyser has been known to reach heights of ft during eruptions.

The vapor dominated hydrothermal areas are characterized by surface expressions of fumaroles, acid-sulfate boiling pools, and ammonium-sulfate springs. Fumaroles are vents releasing steam that has risen from the hydrothermal reservoirs up to the surface. The acidsulfate boiling pools are like the ones in the hot-water dominated system, but typically with less water. Ammonium-sulfate springs occur where the vapor has distilled the Paleozoic or Mesozoic sediments underlying the volcanics on its way from the geothermal reservoir to the surface.

This distillation forms methane, ethane, and ammonium. These gases travel up with the steam, interacting with shallow groundwater, and resulting in springs that have basic pH, low Cl, high Si, and very high NH4, and SO4. Vapor dominated systems below the water table are underpressured with respect to the hydrostatic pressure, so there must be constraints preventing groundwater from flowing into the vapor saturated area.

This suggests that the permeability of both the cap and sides of the vapordominated area must be relatively low. References: [1] Fournier, R. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Geological Survey Open File Report National Park Service. Often these conditions are found in difficult to access localities, such as black smokers at the bottom of the ocean. The hot springs in Yellowstone National Park maintain relatively constant temperature and composition conditions and are relatively easy to access Stockner, This makes the Yellowstone Hot Springs and Geysers optimal locations for field studies aimed to study the diversity and conditions in which extreme organisms live.

Each species tends to live within a specific temperature range. Besides temperature, the chemical character of the water, whether acidic, alkaline, or sulfurous, determines which species are present. Species found in the Yellowstone hot springs and geysers come from the bacteria, archaea, and eukarya domains of the phylogenetic tree of life LASP, ; NPS. Due to the extreme conditions in which these organisms live, there is a reduction in their complexity and in the number of species present for a given set of conditions Stockner, Observations confirm this conclusion with a majority of the thermophiles, and other extremophiles belonging to the bacteria and archaea domains LASP, There are two main types of growth habits exhibited by the organisms in the hot springs: streamers and mats Castenholz, ; LASP, Streamers are string-like amalgamations of organisms formed due to the flowing water associated with springs and geysers.

Conversely, mats form in relatively stagnant water and are characterized by overlying layers of organisms that extend horizontally for some distance in the hot spring or geyser. The position each organism occupies in the mat depends on the specific temperature and sunlight requirements of that organism.

A wide range of conditions may be present in a thick microbial mat, resulting in organisms migrating through the mat until they reach regions of optimal conditions LASP, Changes in color, within a hot spring system and between different hot springs, reflect variations in conditions and temperatures LASP ,; Stockner, Chemosynthetic organisms those that convert specific elements into energy and anoxygenic photosynthetic organisms those that break down compounds like hydrogen sulfide are found closest to the spring source or in the bottom layers of mats where elements such as sulfur and iron are most abundant.

Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms those that convert sunlight into energy are found at the tops of mats and further from the spring source where toxic elements are less concentrated LASP ,; Stockner, This image exemplifies the variation of and dependence on hot spring conditions of microorganisms. Each distinct color band represents a different species.

The concentric pattern correlates with radial changes in temperature and chemical conditions within the hot spring. Photo from National Geographic webpage. Included information exemplifies how organisms vary different colors represent different species between the conditions in Yellowstone Hot Springs. All values from LASP, Brilliant color variation from the center of the spring exemplifies the transition between conditions as well as species of microorganisms.

The surrounding vegetation is bleached from exposure to the acidic fumes. These organisms are able to survive here because a majority of the sulfur and iron has been removed via chemosynthesis closer to the spring source. The distribution of organisms is directly related to the temperature and conditions present at a particular point in a given hot spring system. Fouke et al. In general, organisms with highest temperature tolerances are found nearest source and in the central stream channel the species then change systematically as surrounding geologic, chemical, and temperature conditions change.

It is also notable that the abundance of an individual species decreases with temperature and inversely with diversity Fouke et al. As each species occupies a specific niche in the hot spring environment, annual changes in organism abundance and location may occur due to temperature and sunlight variations Castenholz, This migration phenomenon is typically absent in organisms using chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis. Why do we care? It is such organisms that are most likely responsible for creating a world, by oxygenating the atmosphere, where more complex and diverse organisms could inhabit.

These early extremophiles could thus be considered our ultimate ancestors. This variation is due mainly to temperature variation within the stream channel. Schematic diagram of facies and conditions variation with distance from the spring source of Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park. Rates are travertine depositional rates. As a visitor to Yellowstone National Park you do not need specialized equipment to observe the microbial community, just your eyes. On this fieldtrip there were several stops, such as Mud Volcanoes, Norris Geyser Basin, and Mammoth Hot Springs that exhibited a wide variety of thermophilic microorganisms.

When visiting these two locations, take care with cameras as steam from acidic pools can etch lenses. Beyond careful camera usage and sulfuric fumes, enjoy the colorful element that the extremophiles add to the geologic phenomena of the Yellowstone National Park hot springs and ponder what these extreme organisms adapted to in a harsh early Earth environment. References: Castenholz, R.

Bacteriological Reviews. Fouke B. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. Yellowstone Journalist Worshop. Limnology and Oceanography. Multiple successive pulses of mafic magma were intruded into the upper crust of the Wyoming Craton at approximately 2. The source of the magma is thought to be the result of extensive crustal assimilation by a rising komatiitic melt Longhi et al.

Thrusting along the main Horseman Thrust Fig.

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Geologic map of the Stillwater Complex. The Ultramafic Zone is dominated by olivine and orthopyroxene cumulate rocks with numerous chromitite seams seams A-G. There are several competing hypotheses for how these layers were formed see below. The Banded Zone marks the appearance of cumulus plagioclase, where anorthosite monomineralic plagioclase layers are common.

Layered intrusions are one of the principle means of understanding the nature of igneous differentiation on earth. When the mantle initially melts, the composition of the magma is basaltic. Yet the upper and middle continental crust is largely granitic. There are two ways to generate a granitic composition from a basaltic composition: partial melting or fractional crystallization. Layered intrusions are the primary observational evidence available to study how fractional crystallization works and how magma and ultimately rock compositions evolve on Earth.

This is because as these large basaltic magma chambers cool, they start to crystallize. Certain minerals, such as olivine and orthopyroxene, form at higher temperatures and are the first to be removed. In the Stillwater, the removal of olivine and orthopyroxene is recorded by the Ultramafic Zone rocks. Other minerals, such as plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and magnetite, form later this is seen in the Banded Zone. Thus, the succession of rock types records the progressive cooling and crystallization of a previously homogeneous magma composition.

After removing these minerals, with their different chemical compositions, the last bit of magma to crystallize will have a much different chemistry — it will look very much like a granite. However, there are other intrusions like the Bushveld Complex, South Africa or the Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland, that show the full progression. In fact, the Stillwater Complex has the highest grade PGE ore body on the planet, and is highly prized for its palladium contents.

The J-M reef is a pegmatitic olivine-orthopyroxene layer that was likely formed by a massive influx of new magma that was near sulfide saturation. The Stillwater Complex is famous among magma chamber dynamicists for its inch-scale layering Figure The origin of igneous layering is still highly debated. For a more detailed review of layering mechanisms see Naslund and McBirney Yellow arrow indicates location of hammer for scale.

References: [1] DePaolo and Wasserberg Geochim. Acta 43 [2] Nunes Geochim. Acta 45 [3] Premo et al. The HMD surface is flat and nearly level, having a slope of less than 2 degrees. The underlying rocks are undisturbed. The rocks that have been detached are extensively deformed and broken up. B Stratigraphic column showing the location of the detachment horizon. From Hague, The first is the surface along which the allocthon detached.

The second part is where the HMD cut up-section and breached the surface. The third part is the surface along which the allocthonous sheet overrode the Eocene landscape. The bulk of the rock sheet ends at the north side of Dead Indian Hill where the Transgressive Fault begins , but more pieces are found as far as 50 kilometers beyond — including Heart Mountain Hague, The Transgressive Fault forms where the sedimentary layers increase in dip towards the SE.

At Dead Indian Pass, the rocks underlying the HMD are extensively brecciated due to the passage of the allocthonous rocks over them. The HMD was initially identified in its Land Surface Fault portion and initially 55 interpreted as a thrust in Dake, as it placed Ordovician rocks over Eocene basin fill. Erosion later removed much of the slide for this part of the HMD but a few klippen remain, including Heart Mountain, to testify how far it once spread. The landslide origin of this rock mass was first recognized by Bucher Rocks above the Heart Mountain detachment were once a much thicker km and less extensive body.

Carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age as old as Ordovician or million years were overlain by younger ones, topped with a thick pile of volcanic rocks Absaroka Volcanics dating from the Eocene, about 50 million years old. These rocks were structurally thinned during the emplacement of the slide and later covered by younger volcanic rocks. Diagrams of HDM formation. A HMD formation with catastrophic emplacement and only Paleozoic rocks in the hanging wall Pierce, , The rate of emplacement of the slide has been debated, but most researchers seem to favor a catastrophic emplacement over a slow one Pierce, ; Beutner and Craven, , Anders et al.

Pierce suggested the detached sheet of rock was composed only of sedimentary rocks and that the existing volcanic rocks were emplaced later, filling up the remnant topography Figure Subsequent studies though seem to agree that there was a preexisting section of Eocene volcanics overlying the sedimentary section prior to the formation of the HMD and that these rocks were also extended as part of the allocthonous sheet.

The main hypothesis for the formation of the HMD is that an earthquake initiated its movement Bucher, Once this happened, superfluid conditions at the base caused by either volcanic gas or hot water combined with almost equal vertical and horizontal stresses due to regional diking allowed a reduction in friction, which allowed the HMD to continue sliding.

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The slide is thought to have moved over 50 km Figure The idea is that hot fluids gas or water were trapped by a thick layer of dolomite that was impervious to them. Friction on the detachment quickly raised a tremendous amount of heat causing the rock within the fault to melt. This would have led to a fluidization of the basal layer and the calcining of the carbonates Anders et al.

Magnitude and path of Heart Mountain transport from Goren et al. Stratified granular media beneath large slide blocks: implications for mode of emplacement. Geology, 28, — Fouke, Aubrey L. The Journal of Geology, 6 , Beutner, E. Volcanic fluidization and the Heart Mountain detachment, Wyoming.

Geology, 24, — Volcanic explosions and overthrusts. Union, — Bucher, W. Heart Mountain problem. In Blackstone, D. Field Conference Guidebook, field conference in the Bighorn Basin. Craddock, J. Dynamics of emplacement of the Heart Mountain allochthon at White Mountain: constraints from calcite twinning strains, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and thermodynamic calculations. Calcite twinning strain constraints on the emplacement rate and kinematic pattern of the upper plate of the Heart Mountain detachment. Dake, C. Journal of Geology, 26, Goren, L. Aharonov and M. The long runout of the Heart Mountain landslide: Heating, pressurization, and carbonate decomposition, Journal Geoph.

Research, , B, doi Hague, T. Gravity-spreading origin of the Heart Mountain allocthon, northwestern Wyoming. The Heart Mountain detachment, northwesternWyoming: years of controversy. In Snoke, A. Geology of Wyoming: memoir. Pierce, W. The Heart Mountain break-away fault, northwestern Wyoming.

Bull, 91, — Glacial Deposits Contributed by Michael Wolovick The Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations are names given in the western US to the ultimate and the penultimate glacial maxima, respectively. They are also called the Wisconsin and the Illinoian. Regardless of the name, they represent the local manifestation of the last two cold swings of the eccentricity-driven kyr glacial cycle MIS and 6 that governed global climate in the last half of the Pleistocene.

Both of these glaciations consisted of valley glaciers and local ice caps on elevated topography; full continental scale ice sheets did not develop in the field area. The Bull Lake glaciation reached its maximum at ka Horse Butte and its deposits can be distinguished from Pinedale deposits by a greater level of weathering and erosion.

Bull Lake morianes are gently sloping and broadly breached by streams. Because they are broadly breached, they tend not to interfere with local hydrology as much as Pinedale moraines do. Boulders within Bull Lake till, when present, are highly weathered and grussified Figure However, there is a lower abundance of boulders in Bull Lake till than is found in Pinedale till. In addition, the Bull Lake glaciation was more extensive than the Pinedale glaciation.

Where deposits from both glaciations are present, the Bull Lake terminal moraines are more distal than the Pinedale terminal moraines. Like most glaciations, the Bull Lake glaciation was not a single event; often multiple nested terminal moraines can be observed.

At the type locality Bull Lake there are three till strata separated by a paleosol and a disconformity. Bull Lake morainal till. Note highly grussified granite rock in the middle of the image there are two rocks; the upper one directly behind the hammer is less weathered than the one below it. Its deposits are less eroded than Bull Lake deposits. Moraines are steeply sloping, narrowly breached by streams, and hydrology in their vicinity is often disorganized.

Pinedale moraines also contain extensive quantities of unweathered or only mildly weathered boulders. As a result, they can be distinguished at a distance as low boulder-strewn hills Figure Near Yellowstone National Park, there was a local ice cap on Beartooth plateau that fed a km long glacier in Lamar valley during the Pinedale glaciation.

Cirques throughout the region supported numerous minor glaciers. Pinedale moraine. Left: view from the top of a Pinedale moraine. The glacier flowed out of the valley in the deep background. Right: view of a Pinedale moraine from the road. Note the hillside is strewn with boulders without a local source. References: Foster, D. Brocklehurst, and R. Richmond, G. Here we saw the Boulder fault, a 'Laramide age' thrust fault, Paleozoic-Mesozoic stratigraphic section, and spectacular flatirons — steeply sloping wedge-shaped features created by differential erosion of inclined rock layers.

The exact age of the thrust faulting is difficult to assess because the youngest offset unit is the late Cretaceous Pierre Shale and the oldest undisturbed unit is the early Quaternary Rocky Flats Alluvium. Maximum displacement is determined to be 1. The fault length is difficult to assess because the fault surface is untraceable in the Cretaceous shale north and south of the site. Depth at this location at the time of faulting is estimated to be less than 3. The flatirons Figure 45 are formed of Pennsylvanian Fountain Formation mostly arkose, coarse, feldspar-rich sandstone that is typically pink in color because of the abundant pink feldspar grains.

The Fountain formation was uplifted and tilted to its present position during the Laramide uplift of the Rocky Mountains Ma. A structural cross-section can be seen in Figure The next stratigraphic unit in the cross-section is Permian Lyons formation, comprised mainly from aeolian sandstone. The stone used for many of the buildings on the University of Colorado campus was excavated from the Lyons Sandstone. The pink color of the Lyons Sandstone is caused by traces of iron oxide between the small grains of sand.

The uplift of Ancestral Rocky Mountains exposed the Precambrian granodiorite and pegmatites and allowed for severe chemical weathering. This weathering formed a soil profile on the surface of the granodiorite, a process that is known as grussification, which can be observed along the Flagstaff Mountain road. Table 2. Chronostratigraphic column of the sedimentary rocks of the Boulder area. Map of the route for Day 1. Observed Elk Mountain, south of I The now exposed up-thrusted plate consists of Proterzoic granites capped by a resistant Proterozoic quartzite.

A view of Elk Mountain. Split Rock — a landmark within the Granite Mountains, located along the valley of the Sweetwater River, that was used for navigation purposes by western-bound settlers. Initially, the Sweetwater River valley 64 provided a route used by fur trappers, mountain men, and fur traders as they went to their annual summertime Rocky Mountain rendezvous, located usually somewhere along the Green River, Wyoming.

These trappers and traders soon established a path for their pack trains along the Sweetwater and eventually cleared a rough wagon trail to the Green River. By the Sweetwater River valley was a regular wagon trail providing the water, grass and fuel needed on the Oregon, California and Mormon Trails across Wyoming. The Granite Mountains, of which Split Rock is part of, were formed by the Laramide Orogeny and were once a much higher mountain range, similar to other mountain ranges in the state. The exposed range is formed of weathered Archean granite outcropping in characteristically rounded boulders that stand above light-colored, flat-lying Tertiary sedimentary rocks.

A view of the Granite Mountains. These rocks, which are widely exposed in the Wind River Range and in Wind River Canyon through the Owl Creek Mountains, are typically granite, granite gneiss, or schist, although locally mafic dikes are present. Paleozoic rocks are composed mostly of sandstone, shale, limestone, and dolomite, with some chert, formed by transgressions and regressions of an epicontinental sea. In the Late Paleozoic Period, phosphoric beds and gypsiferous shale also were deposited.

Many of these rocks are cliff forming and are exposed in steep walled canyons of the Wind River Range and in Wind River Canyon. Permian Phosphoria shallow-water limestone with rich organic content is a source formation for oilbearing Mesozoic sandstones. The Triassic Chugwater Formation primarily consists of red siltstone and sandstone, and is mapped across Wyoming, Montana, and Colorado. The Jurassic aged Nugget Sandstone is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir: predominantly eolian processes deposited cross-bedded, low-angle to horizontally bedded and rippled, very- fine- to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdune areas, and associated environments.

Mesozoic formations and recent alluvial formations in Red Canyon, Wyoming, on the eastern flank of the Wind River Mountains just south Lander. Prominent layers include: Chugwater Formation thick red layers and Nugget Sandstone tan layers above. The two deposits are easily differentiated: the Bull Lake deposits are grussified, highly degraded and crumble when touched, appear reddish in the outcrops due to high Fe content, and have a thick soil layer at the top, whereas the Pinedale deposits look less weathered and have thin soil layers.

The river later emerges in a large, calm pool on the other side of the canyon and then continues its course into the valley below. The lower portion of the canyon is made up primarily by Madison Limestone, a massive, off-white limestone formation that is very soft and soluble. Additionally, more water flows from the Rise than enters the cavern at the Sinks. There could be a large underground aquifer or lake that slows the progress of the water, or there could be a myriad of channels and passages that the water has to circulate though before it reaches the Rise.

Map of the route for Day 2. This is now a popular and picturesque location for hiking. The lake itself was carved by glaciers, and is the second-largest lake in Wyoming at feet deep, 9 miles long, and 1 mile wide. Lateral moraines flank the north and west sides of the lake Figure 53 , with a terminal moraine to the south, and outwash ridges across the road to the east Figure Outwash ridges can be recognized by their terraced structures, although these have steep slopes from erosion. The short walk to the top of the terminal moraine at the south shore of the lake offers a good vantage point.

Bull lake deposits extend beyond the Pinedale to the south, with flat outwash plains in the distance. Oil and gas wells are abundant in the area. The Salt Range, a product of Laramide thrusting, can be seen to the southwest, with the Gros Ventre Range to the northwest and the Wind River Thrusts to the north and east.

Fremont Lake facing northeast, with Pinedale glacial till in the foreground. Lateral moraines visible on the north and west edges of the lake. Map view of the area surrounding Fremont Lake. Image from maps. This range was uplifted by thrusting in the Laramide Orogeny.

This syncline is clearly visible from the roadside stop Figure Schematic diagram of the Sevier thrusting, Hoback formation, and Laramide thrusting Ore and Kopania, The Hoback Formation is a highly deformed Paleocene-age foreland unit wedged between the youngest Sevier thrust to the west and the Laramide thrusting of the Gros Ventre viewed at the previous stop to the east.

The leading edge of the Sevier Orogeny is the Prospect Thrust, the hanging wall of which is the Jurassic-aged Nugget formation, the footwall of which is the Hoback formation, and which had top-to-the-east motion. The hanging wall has been eroded by glaciation, leaving the klippe now known as Battle Mountain. On the eastern side of the Hoback formation is the Laramide-age Cache Creek Thrust, which forms the basal thrust of the syncline seen in the Gros Ventre.

The cross section and relevant fault system can be seen in Figure Duplex Structures are features that commonly occur in a fault ramp when a fault cuts up-section. This creates slivers of rock bounded by faults called horses. This geometry results in several fault strands that eventually sole back in to the main fault Figure At this location, duplex structures are seen in the Madison Limestone. This structure, compounded with heavy rains and snowmelt, allowed slip along a bedding plane in the Tensleep Formation. The landslide moved all of the overlying Tensleep formation as well as some of the Chugwater Fm.

Rock and debris behaved as a granular flow, traveling down the valley and up the opposite slope. This debris dammed the Gros Ventre River at the base of the valley. This natural dam, which was deemed structurally sound, burst two years later on May , causing catastrophic flooding in the nearby towns of Kelly and Wilson. The landslide scarp is still clearly visible Figure Scarp from the Gros Ventre landslide. It is relevant to the discussion of the age of the Teton Range, which can be determined using the age and tilt of ash layers, and underscores the seismic hazards in the Teton area.

Ash layers are always deposited horizontally; any tilting must have occurred after deposition. The Teton Range is formed by normal faulting, so as the range rises, the basin in which the ash is deposited goes down. The closer to the fault it is, the more the basin drops, resulting in layers tilting towards the range Figure Ash layers dated at 6 and 10 Ma are parallel, indicating no motion on the fault during that time span.

Another ash layer on the far side of the Tetons is dated at 4 Ma and is also parallel to the 6 and 10 Ma ash layers. However, a 2 Ma ash layer has a smaller dip, indicating that motion took place between Ma Anders, Views from Signal Mountain overlook: left, view of Snake River facing southeast , right, view of the Teton Range facing southwest. Schematic diagram of fanning layers due to normal faulting, as occurred in the basin adjacent to the Teton Range.

The dangers of this are illustrated by the visible fault scarp on Rockchuck Peak Figure This fault scarp is approximately 60 feet high, and motion likely occurred around 15, years ago. Microearthquake locations extend down to 15 km depth, indicating that the fault has potential for up to a magnitude 7. Moran Figure Teton range, with visible fault scarp near the base of Rockchuck Peak. References Anders, M. Nature, v , p Dorr Jr. Nelson, V. Journal of Geology, Vol 51, No 3, Ore, H. Map of all stops for Day 3. Top left shows full route, with close ups on right and bottom.

Images from maps. From the peak, the views to the north and west show Precambrian crystalline basement rocks overlain by Paleozoic sediments Table 3. The basement rocks were uplifted during the Laramide Orogeny as part of the Gros Ventre-Teton uplift on structures related to the Buck Mountain and the Cache Creek thrust faults. Table 3. Paleozoic Stratigraphy. Some fossils. Few fossils. Mottled blue-gray limestone Park Shale Mbr: upper member; greygreen shale with beds of limestone conglomerate Death Canyon Mbr: two thick bluegrey limestone beds separated by 5m of locally fossiliferous shale, representing deepening of ocean and clearing of water, followed by shortlived shoreline retreat and deposition of shale bed followed by return to deep water limestone.

Wolsey Shale Mbr: greenish gray shale with purple and green sandstone at base. Mudcracks from brief subaerial exposure in tidal flats. Some brachiopods and trilobite fossils. Brown, maroon and white sandstone, locally containing pebbles of quartz and feldspar. The Teton Range, as viewed from the top of the tram near Rendezvous Peak looking north. These thrust faults place older Paleozoic rocks on top of younger Mesozoic age rocks.

At the first stop just to the west of Hoback, we could see that the upper plate of the Darby fault, composed of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, was thrust over the Jurassic Twin Creek limestone. The contact surface was difficult to identify because the rocks on the hill slope were bungled up. The Darby Thrust is the younger of the two thrust faults, and the upper plate of the Darby is actually the lower plate of the Absaroka thrust.

At the second stop boat ramp further west, we could identify the Absaroka Thrust fault which thrusted Mississippian Madison limestone upper plate over Cretaceous strata. Active fault scarp At the east end of 4th Ave in Afton, the road dead-ends at a steep 10 m scarp, and a driveway climbs up the scarp to the south to a small house sitting on the top of the scarp Figure This scarp is related to the last movement on the range-bounding fault along the east side of Star Valley. There were well-developed diamond facets on the range front along the east side of the valley, indicative of active faulting.

Diamond facets develop on a range front when the active faulting outpaces the ability of surface processes to erode the range front and wear it down. Active fault scarp in Afton. Map of the route for Day 4. A: Camp Davis. B: Teton Village tram, stop 1. C: Snake River Canyon, stops 2 and 3. E: Active fault scarp, stop 4 with detailed street plan of Afton, ID. Subsequent loading of basaltic material from volcanic eruptions caused additional basin depression. Pumice and obsidian can be seen in hand-samples and there is some coherency in the material. Stop 2: Primary ash fall Big Elk creek, turn right at mile stone on route 26 Primary ash fall deposit from the 4.

The ash is incompletely lithified and friable. Small, black obsidian balls are visible in hand-samples. The deposit experienced some reworking by wind and exhibits some layering. Ash deposits from the 4. Stop 3: Andesite stock and sill Calamity Dam Recreation Area The andesitic stock and sill are visible in an outcrop across from and in a roadcut nearby.

It is the only known outcrop of andesitic material associated with the Yellowstone volcanics suite, which everywhere else consists of basalts and rhyolites. The intrusions were emplaced 6 Ma ago and the outcrop exhibits hyperbyssal flow shallow intrusion indicating near surface cooling. Radiation from the Yellowstone hotspot head or tail could have initiated crustal melting resulting in parent magma for this andesite.

This region was once included in the Yellowstone parabola of death rate of motion 2. Instead, deformation is related to acceleration in basin and range extension based on the change in slope of the deposits as illustrated in Figure Slope of the deposits and tilt rate illustration. We carefully examined the rock face looking for the base of the slide block.

There was a distinct gravel zone in which the movement of the overlying material was accommodated. The bottom portion is normally graded large material under smaller material while the top portion is reverse graded, with a thin layer of wood at the interface. This indicates the likely presence of fluidized material at the base lowering the coefficient of friction thus, facilitating low angle sliding. A low coefficient of friction will also increase the size or mass of the resulting landslide. This slide block was transported to its current location between 2 and 5 Ma before additional tilting.

Gros Ventre LS Figure Gros Ventre limestone slide block right with a detailed view of the basal layer right. Stop 5: Block flow basalt Beside Rt 26 around milestone A basaltic lava flow that remained fluid in the interior of the flow, but became quite viscous near the edges toward the center and top portions which fractured and broke apart as cooling proceeded. The underlying lava remained hotter and less viscous, thus preventing rapid crystallization and preserving elongate vesicles and an intact flow.

Stop 6: Palagonite and loess Intersection of Stagecoach Rd and Rt 26 Another boot-wearing roadcut climb to an outcrop of palagonite with overlying 81 loess deposits. Layers and a stream channel within the palagonite deposit contain lava fragments and other lithics from near the basaltic source that are now altered and exhibit cross-bedding. Subaqueous conditions are corroborated by the presence of pillow basalts on the opposite side of the road Figure 70 , indicating that the Snake River Plain was a lake at the time of the palagonite eruption.

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The lake was formed by the lava flow blocking the Snake River. The loess deposits, which are extremely fine-grained wind-blown material glacial powder, are associated with both the Pinedale and Bull Lake glacial deposits. Both of these loess deposits are fertile, and the Bull Lake can be differentiated from the Pinedale because it has coarser material and caliche crusts. The two deposits are separated by a thin soil horizon.

Examples of Yellowstone volcaniscs: Palagonite deposits top , pillow basalt with orange palagonite crust left , and loess deposits right. Stop 8: Ash flow tuff Ririe Dam and Reservoir This stop consists of an extensive roadcut outcrop of the Huckleberry Ridge formation both the A and B eruption units are observable with ash flow tuffs containing obsidian clasts, sanidine, and lithic fragments. Ar dating of the sanidine gives a 2. The tuff sits on top of a basal surge deposit that was laid down prior to the ash as material was pushed ahead of the flow.

Part way down the gavel road a degassing tube within the tuff was preserved. There is an erosional surface and conglomerate deposit stratigraphically below the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff that cuts stream channels in the underlying Heise Tuff. The Heise Tuff, related to the 4. This deposit has a basal vitrophyre, a supercompacted ash that is essentially glass, and a reddish colored baked zone in underlying older eruptive deposits.

Another loosely compacted conglomerate layer separates the Heise Tuff from the older Wolverine Tuff. The Wolverine Tuff 6Ma contains pumice and obsidian balls and is significantly reworked. Numerous small scale normal faults can be identified within this unit. Diamond facets of the Madison Range: a photograph of the diamond facets left and a schematic illustration right. Stop landslide About 5 min east of the last stop Catastrophic landslide triggered in by a 7.

This landslide was notable because it buried a portion of the Rock Creek public campground killing 28 people located on the Madison River. The material slide down into the valley and up the other side and dammed the river, creating Earthquake Lake. Eventually, the Army Corps cut a channel through the deposit to drain part of the lake to prevent catastrophic flooding as had happened with the Gros Ventre Slide. Consequences of earthquake: Catastrophic landslide produced by the earthquake left and a fault scarp at Hebgen lake campsite right.

This site documents the sudden formation of the visible fault scarp, which has a 2 m vertical relief. There is a short trail along the scarp toward the creek that suddenly ends due to a rupture barrier. Within m, the slip decreased from 7 m to 0 m. Maps of the route for Day 5: Alpine campground and major stops on Route 26 made in the morning top , and earthquake features and Yellowstone Park covered in the afternoon bottom. Played pool and foosball. There is an abundance of pungent smells from the sulphur emitted by the mud pots and mud volcanoes. The area consists of spectacular examples of mudpots and mud volcanoes oozing with boiling, burping slurries of acidic mud produced by acidic breakdown of volcanic ashes and rhyolites below Figure The magma chamber below Yellowstone caldera is 30 km wide and 10 km long, but is mostly crystalline mush.

The basalt oC is several hundred degrees warmer than the melting point of rhyolite oC , so it assimilates the overlying crust, resulting in Sr, Nd, and Pb ratios characteristic of the older continental crust. The overall thermal anomaly extends northwest. Mud volcano in Yellowstone National Park. Different colors come from a temperature-dependent hydrothermal alteration. The spectacular canyon was formed in the last 15 ka due to the retreat of the Pinedale Glaciers. At this point, we discussed the effect of high silica content and volatiles on magma characteristics, and talked about three ways for an explosion — exsolution of volatiles due to cooling, magma injection or removal of overburden.

Artist Point, Yellowstone National Park. Obsidian Cliff Obsidian was deposited in layers alternating with rhyolite. The lack of crystal structure in obsidian is explained as much by flow shear while cooling as rapid cooling rate. Numerous spherolites are observed in the outcrop. They represent devitrification structures with feldspars growing outward in concentric circles, and are common in rhyolite ash and flow deposits.

It was created over thousands of years as hot water from the springs cooled and deposited calcium carbonate over two tons flow into Mammoth each day in solution. The water originates from a hydrothermal chamber up through the Madison Limestone. Although these springs lie outside the caldera boundary, their energy has been attributed to the same magmatic system that fuels other Yellowstone geothermal areas. Tower Falls Spectacular columnar jointing in basalt is seen right in the road wall.

The PreHuckleberry Ridge basalt flow dates from 2. Entablature structures formed by competing slower cooling from the bottom and from the top where meteoric and river water seeped into the flow. Two other columnar basalts Post-Huckleberry Ridge are seen across the river dating back to 1. Basalt layer are separated by glacial outwash from around 1. Entablature Colonnade Figure Since the dirt is still resting under a blanket of snow, consider some road miles to start off the season. Of course, a recreational road ride is always great, but how bout riding your bike to work?

Or to the grocery store? The secret to a suc- cessful start to the commuter sea- son is gear. Maybe a bike set aside just for commuting is the answer. Time to ride! The payday lending marketing plan depends on trapped borrowers who take out multiple loans. Trapped borrowers generate ninety percent of payday lending business, taking out five or more loans per year.

Over 60 percent of loans go to borrowers with 21 or more loans per year, and 24 percent of loans go to borrowers with 21 or more loans annually. The Wyoming Department of Audit has expressed concern about payday lending. It appears that some post- dated check loans are close to becoming installment loans and not the single pay- ment post-dated loans as they are intend- ed. An industry newsletter describes the customer base as being over 60 percent women.

Chronic borrowing often has had a devastating impact on ordinary low and middle-income people and their families. In , Congress enacted the Military Lending Act, putting a 36 percent inclu- sive rate cap to protect active duty Service members and their families from outra- geously expensive credit.

Introduced by Sen. Durbin D-IL , and Representative Speier D-NY , this bill would extend current protections against predatory lending for service members and their families to cover all consumers. The bill would cap interest rates at 36 percent on all consumer loans including payday loans, refund anticipation loans RALs , credit cards, overdraft loans, car title loans, and mortgages.

This bill would require that all fees and finance charges be included in the new usury rate calculation and would require all lending to conform to the rate limit, thus eliminating the many loopholes in current state and federal law. However, this federal law would not preempt stricter state laws.

R , introduced by Rep. Moving swiftly through the House Financial Services Committee with little opposition, the bill would effectively legitimize predatory lending by capping interest rates at percent. Congressional approval of triple-digit lending will under- mine current reform efforts in many states around the country.

Borrowers who fall prey to predatory lending practices often cannot afford to repay the loans, ending up in foreclosure, bankruptcy, or other financial hardship. This has a negative impact on family eco- nomic security and drains assets out of the local economy. We reserve the right to edit them for grammar, punctuation, content and length. Also, Planet Jackson Hole will not publish anonymous letters without darn good reasons; if you think you have a good reason, let us know, but, again, include contact information in all correspondence. Email your letters to editor planetjh.

The District is set to waste mil on a new stadium while accepting just under 1 mil in stimulus funds. Cut out sports and all the extra curricular trophy programs— save millions. This is one of the most spoiled school districts in the nation. Kids have plenty of other activities to keep them active in Jackson. This is disap- pointing as there is apparently much infor- mation available. We are sim- ply asking for access we are entitled to under the Wyoming Public Records Act.

We look forward to regaining the trans- parency now missing form the Comp Plan Update process. It is within atmos- pheres such as these in histories past that have been the harbingers of the decline and fall of empires and societies. My point in this preamble is in refer- ence to Carrie Prejean, a female college student who was selected as a runner-up in the recent Miss U. This is anoth- er obvious proof of the absurd inanity dis- played and upheld in the institution of beauty pageant competitions.

These are events where female contestants are degradingly exploited and fabricated into a fantasy form of what the ideal woman should be. This is all performed while profiteering organizers set the rules and standards based upon the popular norm. In the event that a vulnerable participant rows upstream against the accepted current, this being the modern day pseudo-toler- ance, and voices her individual convic- tions of belief only when inquired upon, she is ridiculed and rejected by the estab- lished pageantry.

I may hold my own opinion in regard to the question in question that was posed to Miss Prejean, but I stand in full support of her upholding her individual right to respond as she personally saw fit. Then again, I am not of the female gender and therefore ineligible from any form of com- peting in such a daft and meaningless event. What we have is a team of educated planners they might be Eastern educated , a consulting group that wants to get their final installment, and a valley that is back to work come Memorial Day.

We make hay when the sun shines. Teton Village is a place I hardly recog- nize. They have a tremen- dous amount of commercial space that has already been approved, just waiting for the moneyman to give the nod. Now, hold that thought and move the housing to the Aspens and Wilson. Bingo Bongo. Do you see what I see? Whoa, Mr. Green Jeans we have made a discovery. Money is money no matter how you fold it. After Memorial Day you might have to catch me on the trail. Leave a mes- sage or send an email to our government.

And they want us to smile about it. This document fails to retard the same development path we have experi- enced the last few decades. The baby shown is 8 weeks old after fertilization. Bummed about the economy? How about a FREE ad? Buy 3, get 1 free! Landowners have effectively partnered with our real estate agencies, to advertise and invite the world to own a piece of our valley. As a result, tourism has been replaced by growth and development as the primary economic engine of the valley. Real estate, finance, often our own banks , architects, attorneys, right down to our planning departments, planning commissions and often our elected repre- sentatives are complicit in this effort — and successful.

What started out as an effort to limit our growth in favor of wildlife and open space has failed. I was foolish to think I could help make some difference. No mulligans, no second chances, no Federal bailouts. The recently released draft for the new Comp Plan seems distinctly out of synch with the overwhelming sentiment in our community. First of all, further growth may be inevitable but full build-out need not be. Preservation of wildlife and scenic open spaces will, above all else, insure high quality of life for our citizens and highly valued experiences for our visitors.

South Park serves as the southern gateway to Jackson Hole, and simply must be put back at the top of the list of protected areas, as was so clearly stated in the plan that has served us well up to now. To refuse to restore this invaluable resource as a protected legacy would be incompre- hensible. Incentives for purchase and re-development or rehabilitation of existing neighborhoods, particularly those close to town with existing infrastructure and services, simply seems to be the obvi- ous direction to take.

Adding more com- mercial space and de novo projects is the equivalent of digging our collective hole even deeper. Forget about contrived growth strate- gies and focus solely on these two issues: Natural resources wildlife, open space and Workforce housing existing families employed by existing businesses. Doing so will greatly improve the chances that the final outcome yielded by your actions will be one we can be proud of leaving for the next generation and beyond.

If those two priorities drive all your decisions, our growth will take its proper course into the future. Do the right thing for all the right reasons that drew all of us to call this special place our home. Get this one right. Included in their list of threats were alternative newsweeklies. Nonprofits will be select- ed to spend Saturday mornings at the Market, where they can inform patrons about their efforts in the com- munity. To do so would require an ongoing, comprehensive series of studies that could take decades to complete. It is just one example of the gap that now stands between wildlife science and planning.

A solution to which could make or break the success of the Comprehensive Plan, Schecter said. The gap was evident this Monday, Daugherty said, when a request by St. An email sent to the planning department from Game and Fish said that, yes, there was a migration corridor in that area, but it was unclear how much that corridor was actually being used, since it had already been fragmented decades ago by the development of the Rafter J and Melody Ranch neighborhoods. Was the corridor crucial?

How crucial? As the Comp Plan moves forward, it will be up to Town and County elected officials and planning commissioners to decide if they want the environmental commission, and how much they will fund its studies. For now, its exact nature is amorphous, but the commission will be fleshed out in coming months as planning commissioners and elect- ed officials work on a final draft for the plan, Daugherty said. The change in priorities since the last sur- vey in , a state official said, is in accord with political trends and economic concerns. Rising costs of healthcare and lack of jobs, as well as recent publicity on these issues, contributed to healthcare jumping from No.

Employment ranks No. The survey showed that both groups think additional facilities at recreation areas are the greatest need, followed by trails and green space, then maintenance and money. In , recreation centers, aquatic facili- ties, trails and greenways and outdoor fields topped the list. When asked how important public parks and public recreation areas are to them, SCORP is largely based on a half-year sur- vey of outdoor recreation users and providers, and must be completed every five years by states vying for federal conservation and recreation funds.

Plan officials also con- sulted a number of state agencies, including Wyoming Game and Fish. The Land and Water Conservation Fund and Recreation Trails Program, both federal grant programs on which Wyoming recre- ation areas depend, Thibodeau said, are the impetus for sticking to the update schedule. However, he also said that because the state does not have a master plan for all its parks and recreation areas, the docu- ment provides a guide for counties and private organizations to run operations, protect areas and work with users.

Recreation areas include horseshoe pits, tennis courts and basketball courts, for exam- ple, as well as camping areas and trails, even rodeo grounds. PJH How does development affect wildlife? Do buildings kill animals? Please support keeping abortion safe and legal. Upload your own events at www. Five teams, two hours and a bag full of mystery ingredients put area chefs to the test. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan last week. The selection of outstanding high school seniors as the Presidential Scholars included one scholar from the Jackson Hole High School: Garnet Henderson.

Following a tradition established in , each recipient is allowed to invite his or her most influential teacher to receive a Teacher Recognition Award at a ceremony in Washington, DC. Henderson chose Evie Lewis. George, Utah , talking about our favorite local hunter Gap Puchi. Wixom was trying to convince his readers that even expe- rienced sportsmen could gain valuable tips by hiring hunting guides like Puchi. Snake waters April showers bring … full reservoirs. One month after Idaho mountain snowpacks tra- ditionally peak, hydrologists and irrigators say April storms helped reinforce a good water year in many areas along the Idaho- Wyoming border.

The Times-News Twin Falls, Idaho said Idaho irrigators depending on the Snake still have plenty of unthawed snow in Wyoming to draw from — as much as percent of the normal snowpack. Mike Beus is the water operations manager for the U. He said to expect the Snake River to drop more over the next couple of weeks as irrigation demand contin- ues to grow and Reclamation cuts back its flood-control releases - most notably from Palisades Reservoir.

The bureau also plans a public meeting on May 14 in Jackson, Wyo. Do-it-yourself ski porn. Our favorite was seeing Glory get its due. Arnold was researching volcanoes in Japan when he disappeared. He set off on a hike on April 27 and never returned, prompt- ing extensive search efforts. After Japanese authorities called off search efforts, a U. That search group reported that Arnold appeared to have fallen from a cliff from which there would have been no possibility of survival.

The first time he looked at me, his intensity made me spill my drink, while reaching for my tape recorder. His expression was unmistakable. Steel said as he led me backstage to watch them warm up. Why gone so long? But first, the time has finally come for the men. Within no time, all six chairs are filled with eagerly awaiting ladies whose treat is a gentle or not so gentle lap dance, depending on the dancer and the woman.

You have to know how to read the situation. Blittersdorf introduced me to gatekeeper Matt who manages the Bare Necessities. Gosh, A. My friends and I ordered drinks, and picked out a table in front of the stage. When they found out she was working here, she got fired. Steel gave the previous night. Before I could whip out my Washingtons, Felony was climbing on to our table. Personally, as a woman, it should be no surprise that I like a little foreplay which, in this case, would have been some choreographed dancing simi- lar to the night before, but no, these ladies like to get down to business.

Dressed in a bustier and g-string, Felony quickly became the favorite at our table. I like that. My friend and I discussed whether she did Pilates or yoga. They really let loose. Behind every successful exotic dancer is a creepy looking bouncer. So hands off, sort of. They want their privacy. What do you think of Wyoming men? How do you get your skin so soft? Pilates or yoga? When I explained that I had interviewed A. These are local girls, and it has always been our policy not to give interviews.

You went down there and saw what the girls do. Like going to the beach Most of the women I spoke with were surprised when I told them about the apparent lack of demand for dancer guys. We can just walk home. The Men of Steel will be appearing some- time this summer. Deadline is May 15th. CALL No Cover. Recycled Art: Cake Plates. Pilates, to a. Four plays, all by local women. Most of the girls have been dancing since they could stand. After years of dance class, the girls join the company at the age of They learn form and method, dance with their peers and learn from their predecessors.

They advance, stop thinking and feel the moves. They form their own styles — mostly modern — and eventually, choreo- graph their own dances for the show, this year called Transpose. Boys are also permitted to join, but no one remembers one that ever did. No doubt, I felt old and unathletic. I also felt a certain satisfaction in the compassion and intelligence with which the girls delt with each other.

Living In Jackson Wyoming For Free

Something I rarely experienced playing competative sports around the same age. The themes they conjure might be expected of teenage girls, full of relation- ships and the need for self-respect. But these are also the issues in their lives, so they confront them seriously. The moves need not only flow together, but also bring to life the ideas. For Garnet Henderson, 18, her tenure with the company is nearly over. The girls of Transpose designed the whole show from production to market- ing. Nine of them will debut new dances they choreographed, each about 5 min- utes, along with works by DW instruc- tors.

The newest chorographers will present collaborative pieces. The sophomore said that having someone to work with made it easier to step into a leadership role with girls she was used to goofing off with, and the collaboration forced her to compromise when they had distinct ways they wanted to explore the piece. Broken lines is about decisions, she said — about making and choosing sac- rifices to achieve something or to align with a certain group of friends. The per- formance uses six girls, including a jun- ior and senior, who Lunsford said were helpful and understanding. I played soccer in high school, badly, so I also joined the rowing team, a par- ticularly collaborative sport.

Whereas rowing required us to be in sync with a single motion, the girls of the junior rep company perform a kind of jazz in which they expand and meander off a base rhythm. The metaphors for life are obvious; likewise, the lessons of col- laboration and individuality. PJH Transpose takes place p. No cover. Rock, country, reggae. Blues, rock. Cover TBA. Glenwood street. Featuring new spring collections by local designers Sue Fleming and Arcy Hawks. A performance completely designed by Jackson students. Sunset p. Moonrise a. Moonset a. Moonset p. Sunshine and patchy clouds Sunrise a.

Mostly sunny and warm Sunrise a. Cache Street by phone Register at the recreation center by noon May Four plays, all by local women playwrights.

The Idaho-Wyoming Thrust Belt : Lucian B. Platt :

Hands-on projects, film and bird walk. The event is in a series of family-centered programs. To benefit Targhee Animal Shelter. Ceremony at 10 a. Old-time country, folk, Western. Celebrating 20 years as a band. Musical entertainment by the Cowboy Jubilee. Pilates, a. Art classes for tod- dlers ages five and under, accompanied by their caregiver. Folk rock.

Cardio Kickboxing, a. Modern, p. Join professional mountain bike rider, Amanda Carey for a lunch hour discussion of bike racing tips. Community Global Warming in Greater Yellowstone, p. Classes run May 26 - Aug. Featuring over wines from around the world. Compiled by Aaron Davis and Henry Sweets. Email events planetjh. Coward Nels Cline 4 out of 5 With their reputation for noodling alone in their bed- room with their long necks and their electronic gadgets, some guitarists can be easily dismissed as musical mas- turbators.

But he also has a tender side, one describing an emotional landscape that is dis- tinctly American. Not the twisted America of Bill Frisell, nor the precious vistas of Pat Metheny, but an America of beautiful loneliness and delicious longing.