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Though their conquests included the near-extinction of the Cathar species , it was not until their assaults on worlds near the planet Taris that they drew the Republic's attention. After a year of small conflicts known as the False War, the Mandalorians broke through the Republic's lines and besieged Taris in BBY , and then invaded the Republic through three separate corridors in what became known as the Onslaught. The tide ultimately turned when a group of interventionist Jedi known as the Revanchists , led by the charismatic Revan and his friend Malak , joined the Republic Military in combating the Mandalorians.

Revan personally defeated Mandalore in single combat as the Republic and Mandalorian fleets battled above Malachor V , and the activation of the superweapon known as the Mass Shadow Generator devastated both the planet and the participating fleets. The Mandalorian Wars had long-reaching consequences: Revan forced the defeated Mandalorians to disarm and hid Mandalore's Mask , the symbol of their leadership, and both he and Malak were turned to the dark side of the Force while investigating the Sith influence that had caused Mandalore to go to war. Mandalore the Ultimate left and his predecessor, Mandalore the Indomitable right.

The Mandalorian Wars were named for the Mandalorians, a warrior culture that had clashed frequently with the Galactic Republic in the past. Both had fallen to the dark side of the Force and declared themselves to be Sith , and Qel-Droma earned the Mandalorians' loyalty after defeating their leader, Mandalore the Indomitable , in a duel on the planet Kuar.

Mandalore's forces served Qel-Droma ably in the Sith War, but in the last days of the conflict, the Mandalorians' attempt to conquer the planet Onderon took a disastrous turn with the arrival of the Republic. Mandalore ordered his Mandalorian Crusaders to retreat to the moon of Dxun to lose their pursuers in the moon's fierce jungles, but the warrior's Basilisk war droid was shot down, and he was killed by predatory animals. Mandalore's Mask , the symbol of leadership among the Mandalorians, was discovered by a Taung soldier who succeeded the Indomitable as Mandalore. Most believed that the soldier assumed the name Mandalore the Ultimate , [3] but a few believed that Mandalore the Ultimate usurped the title from the true Mandalore who had found the Mask.

Years after the Mandalorian Wars, that supposed "true Mandalore"—a Taung like the Ultimate—claimed that Mandalore the Ultimate had stolen the title and mask from him. In the decades that followed the Sith War, the Republic and the Jedi Order experienced an era of peace and rebuilding known as the Restoration Period. To restore the Republic's economy and infrastructure, a group of politicians decided to guarantee various corporations throughout the galaxy safe passage and trade along the hyperlanes in exchange for commercial investment in the Republic. As a result, the Republic was able to rebuild its military and economy, supplying much-needed goods to the rest of the galaxy , and hyperspace explorers resumed exploration of the galaxy to discover new routes.

However, while the Republic Navy was bolstered by the influx of commerce and funding, taking the place of corporate defense forces, some groups attempted to manipulate the government for their own profit. The Mandalorians also continued their nomadic existence under Mandalore the Ultimate's leadership, rebuilding their ranks. Wyrick had acquired a genetic sample from the Arkanian Jedi Master Arca Jeth , Ulic Qel-Droma's teacher, and believed that he could genetically engineer Force-sensitives who could be used as a kind of Mandalorian Jedi. Mandalore agreed to Wyrick's proposal, and the Zeltron started the New Generation Project , which was headquartered on the planet Osadia and sought to produce Force -sensitive children from Arkanian Offshoot parents.

However, Wyrick's dealings with the Crucible slaving organization led to the project's destruction, as the Crucible raided the Osadia School [17] around a decade after BBY [18] and kidnapped all of Wyrick's students. Wyrick was unable to recover his students after years of searching and ultimately rejoined the Mandalorian cause as Mandalore's chief scientist, torturing and experimenting on captured Jedi in order to discover the source of their powers.

Wyrick became known as "Demagol," a contraction of the Mando'a term demar agol and a name that literally meant "the flesh carver. In BBY , Mandalore was approached by a member of the Sith species who introduced himself as an emissary of a powerful Sith Lord , and the emissary enlisted the warrior's help in locating the tomb of his master's rival, Dramath the Second , on the planet Rekkiad. Upon discovering the tomb , the emissary told Mandalore of a vision that his master had experienced of the Mandalorians sweeping across the Republic and conquering many worlds before ultimately crushing the Republic in a glorious victory.

Unbeknownst to Mandalore, the emissary was a servant of the Sith Emperor of a hidden Empire , and the warrior was being manipulated through the Force by the emissary—the Emperor sought to use the Mandalorians as a weapon against the Republic and thereby test the Republic's defenses.

Completely under the Sith's spell, Mandalore took up the idea of invading the Republic as his own and began to reorganize and marshal the Mandalorian clans in preparation for the forthcoming battles. Secondly, the Mandalorians would no longer pillage worlds and then move on to the next target; instead, they would hold their territory and build an industrial society based on the Mandalorian code. Mandalore's new vision of society was one where warriors would rule and be supported by farmers , artisans , and manufacturers who had accepted the Mandalorian way. As a result of his decision, the ranks of the Mandalorians rapidly swelled with all manner of Humans and aliens , primarily Mandalorian vassals, such as Mandallian Giants and Jakelians.

This new system was dubbed the Neo-Crusader movement, [3] and with Cassus Fett's aid, [20] Mandalore the Ultimate pioneered the movement as a successor to the Indomitable's Crusaders. The Neo-Crusader name originated as an extremist cult that called for the reestablishment of the Crusader traditions, and Mandalore adapted their views to suit his own ends—the Neo-Crusader movement, though slow to take hold, gradually shaped the Mandalorians into a more disciplined and organized fighting force.

A fleet of Neo-Crusader warships stormed the world, [3] though the battle lasted a total of five days, as the Althiri managed to hold off the Mandalorians—a stalemate that was finally broken by the unit of a young warrior named Canderous Ordo , who was tasked with feinting against one of the enemy flanks in order to draw the enemy out of formation.

However, Ordo saw an opening in the enemy ranks and took the initiative, forcing the Althiri to fend off assaults on two sides and exposing their vulnerable command ships. Ordo's forces quickly eradicated the Althiri fleet, which was ten times the size of their own, and Ordo was rewarded with command over an entire sub-sect of his clan.

The Battle of Cathar [2] was led by Cassus Fett, who directed his forces to herd the defenseless Cathar population into the ocean. There, Fett's forces massacred the Cathar, despite the protests of a single Mandalorian woman , who was killed along with the Cathar. Over the next eight years, the Mandalorians also raided worlds such as Corsin and Azure , and Mandalorian warships expanded their territory into the Tion Hegemony and Hutt Space on the eastern edge of the galaxy. Starting with the capture of the Lianna system , the Mandalorians traveled up the Perlemian Trade Route and took the Makem and Quermia systems before heading southeast along the Overic Griplink hyperroute, conquering the Kaelta system and then taking the Florn system.

At the same time , another campaign was launched from the Lianna system —the Mandalorians first took the Jaminere system , then headed south to the Sy Myrth system , and finally intruded on Hutt Space by taking the Taskeed system , capturing the Dennogra system , and then seizing the Dernatine system. The Hutts resorted to hiring mercenary armies to defend their territories, but frequently the Mandalorians simply recruited the mercenaries into their own ranks.

Commander Rohlan Dyre served in the early battles in the Outer Rim but began to question Mandalore's goals and reasoning for testing the Republic's defenses. When his questions went unanswered, Dyre responded by refusing to fight the next time he was called upon. Dyre was placed on the front lines anyway, so he escaped during the fighting and went in search of answers on his own, [4] investigating " Doctor Demagol's" history and talking to people who knew the scientist before he joined the Mando'ade.

By BBY , Dyre had been caught and sent back to the front lines six times. The Mandalorians' progress came to a halt at the end of the year BBY —the Republic Navy's forces around Taris blocked the invaders' attempts to capture more star systems in the Outer Rim, and the Mandalorians went eight months without a victory. Finally, the Mandalorians made progress along the Mandalorian Road and captured the planet Flashpoint , home to the Flashpoint Stellar Research Station , after a brief skirmish with Republic forces. Over the next six weeks , three further battles were fought at Suurja, but all three of the skirmishes were likewise inconclusive.

Around that time, a charismatic young Jedi began to move through the Jedi Order, calling for Jedi intervention in the conflict with the Mandalorians.

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He advocated revanchism, or the retaking of territories lost to the Mandalorians, and his views were met with suspicion and hostility by the increasingly conservative Jedi High Council , which remained wary of intervention due to the threat of the dark side. Encouraged by his Jedi Master, Kreia , the young Jedi began to openly challenge the Council and gathered a following of like-minded Jedi, including his friend Alek. When the Jedi failed to sway any of the five Jedi Masters there or their Padawans , [26] they departed for the planet Suurja.

However, the "crusader" left his followers on Suurja shortly afterward to investigate Mandalorian activity on Onderon and Dxun, and the Revanchists were unprepared for an ambush by Mandalorians led by Rohlan Dyre. However, everything changed when the galaxy learned of the Padawan Massacre. Four of the five Padawans at the Jedi Tower were slain by their Masters, who were members of a secret Jedi Covenant dedicated to preventing the return of the Sith, and Master Lucien Draay 's Padawan, Zayne Carrick , was blamed for the murders.

Carrick and the Snivvian con man Marn Hierogryph evaded the Covenant Jedi and Taris's police officers , and their inability to capture Carrick sparked a public loss of faith in the Jedi Order's ability to police them. The same day as the Revanchists' capture on Suurja, Carrick was captured by a bounty hunter named Valius Ying and brought to the Jedi Tower. The news of Carrick's capture caused planet-wide celebrations on Taris, as companies such as Lhosan Industries had begun to pull out from the planet in light of the Massacre, but when Carrick escaped from the Jedi Tower with the help of his friends aboard the junk hauler The Last Resort , mass panic and rioting broke out over the following days.

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The police force was overwhelmed, with Constable Noana Sowrs 's children being kidnapped in the chaos, and the five Jedi Masters were recalled to the Republic capital of Coruscant. Seeing the Jedi's withdrawal as an opportunity to take Taris and begin the invasion of the Republic in force, Mandalore the Ultimate ordered his forces to attack the planet Vanquo, thereby ending the eight-month stalemate. At the Battle of Vanquo , Mandalorian forces overwhelmed the Republic Navy's forces and broke the Jebble-Vanquo-Tarnith line, conquering the mining world; at the same time, Mandalorian forces broke through the Republic cordon and headed toward Taris.

Admiral Sommos was gravely injured during the fighting, and she was evacuated to the planet Wayland ; however, Veltraa was killed when his flagship , the Reliance , was destroyed, and the Mandalorians besieged Taris itself. However, the Mandalorians also suffered losses on unexpected fronts—the Jedi Council ordered the "crusader" to rescue the captured Jedi at Flashpoint Station, but the Jedi were instead rescued by Zayne Carrick and his allies when Carrick's friend Jarael was herself taken.

In order to rescue Jarael and the other Jedi, Carrick's group tricked the Mandalorians there into believing that the Republic was booby-trapping their ships with explosives and convinced them to flee the station. Demagol was also apparently captured, [29] but unbeknownst to Carrick and the others, the scientist switched armors with Rohlan Dyre—who had fled the Vanquo battlefront and joined forces with Carrick—and placed Dyre in a coma.

Not long afterward, the "crusader" reunited with his followers and continued his campaign for Jedi intervention but soon found himself to be a celebrity in the eyes of the Republic. Republic media cast "the Revanchist Leader" as a crusading savior who was wrongfully ignored by the Council, and he soon became known simply as the Revanchist. The Revanchists began investigating the planet, excavating and searching for evidence as to what had happened to the planet's population. The Mandalorians then attacked the Zabrak homeworld of Iridonia , which they conquered and occupied for quite some time, recruiting some of the natives into their ranks.

Onderon and its moon Dxun remained under extended Mandalorian control, serving as a staging point later in the conflict. Given the Inexpugnable -class tactical command ship Courageous , Karath was placed in command of the battle group and tasked with the defense of the planet Serroco , which was the next world in the path of the Mandalorians' advance from Jebble. Karath's forces set up camps right next to the stone cities of the native Stereb , and the fleet formed up in a defensive formation around the planet.

However, Mandalore the Ultimate viewed this tactic as a defense without honor, as it assumed that the Mandalorians would not attack the civilian cities, so he decided to teach the Republic a lesson. Zayne Carrick was on Serroco with Marn Hierogryph while staffing the Quartermaster -class supply carrier Little Bivoli , which was serving the Republic forces as a fringer provisioning ship on Serroco; the day before Mandalore's attack, Carrick experienced a Force vision of the forthcoming assault. Ignoring Carrick's explanation that he had been heading for Flashpoint, Karath ordered Carrick's arrest, though he allowed Onasi to try and contact Alek, whom Carrick knew only as "Squint.

To Karath's shock, the nuclear warheads swerved around the Republic ships to slam into Serroco's surface, impacting near twenty-seven population centers and wiping away most of the Stereb cities. The devastation caught most of the Republic ships on the surface by surprise, destroying all but eight of them, and Jedi all across the galaxy felt the simultaneous deaths of thousands through the Force.

Fortunately for the Stereb, Onasi had been able to call down emergencies to seventeen of the Stereb cities, [7] leading the inhabitants of those settlements to take shelter in the underground catacombs of the planet and thereby survive the nuclear devastation. The Battle of Serroco saw Karath's forces begin a slow retreat toward the Core as they came under fire from the Mandalorians, and the Admiral of the Fleet announced his intention to lodge an official protest with the Republic over the military's positioning of its forces near the Stereb cities. Karath sought to retreat to Myrkr or rendezvous with the Tremendous battle group near the Ryyk Nebula but was ultimately forced to fall back toward the banking planet of Telerath.

They managed to escape the ship with the help of Carrick, who had created an escape route to the Deadweight in the hangar. According to Mandalore the Ultimate, the Courageous was melted down by the victorious Mandalorians, and Mandalore claimed that his battle axe was made from the hull of Karath's lost command.

When they reached Chandrila , the two were approached by the Ministry of Defense , which convinced the pair to become propaganda figures: Captain Benegryph Goodvalor and his trusty Trandoshan sidekick. Not long after the bombardment of Serroco, Lord Arkoh Adasca of the Adasca BioMechanical Corporation of Arkania forced the scientist Gorman Vandrayk to complete his work on the weaponization of the enormous space slugs known as exogorths.

Believing that possession of the exogorths, which were essentially a galactic plague that could destroy entire planets, made him a galactic power, Adasca arranged for an auction of the exogorths aboard his ship, the Arkanian Legacy , in the Omonoth system. The Revanchist was unable to attend in person, but after he and several Jedi foresaw that Adasca's offer could change the course of the war, he sent Alek in his place and instructed his friend to ensure that the danger they posed was eliminated.

By the time he reached the Omonoth system, Mandalore had used Rohlan Dyre's apparent death on Flashpoint as propaganda, using the Questioner as a martyr to advance the adoption of the Neo-Crusader cause. However, Adasca quickly became power-hungry and declared himself to be a new galactic power—but Adasca's auction came crashing down, thanks to the efforts of Onasi, Carrick, and Lucien Draay, who had been imprisoned by Adasca with Carrick upon his arrival at the Arkanian Legacy in order to keep Draay away from Adasca's plans.

Donning the set of Neo-Crusader armor that Mandalore had given "Dyre" as a reward for his continued silence, Carrick staged a fight with Onasi, and then he and Draay revealed themselves as Jedi and declared that the entire affair had been a trap for Mandalore. Despite Adasca's protests, Mandalore believed their claims, and chaos broke out aboard the Arkanian Legacy between the Mandalorians, Adasca's security forces, the Republic personnel, and Jedi.

Amid the chaos, Carrick informed Vandrayk that Jarael was safe, prompting the inventor to seize control of the exogorths. Vandrayk used the exogorths to attack the Arkanian Legacy , killing Adasca, before he took the exogorths with him to Wild Space in order to remove their installed hyperdrive units and eliminate the threat they posed. All of Adasca's "guests" managed to escape the doomed Arkanian Legacy , and while Carrick was called to Taris to meet with Hierogryph, [38] Karath returned to Coruscant.

Systems are always distributed by necessity. The truth of the matter is — managing distributed systems is a complex topic chock-full of pitfalls and landmines. It is a headache to deploy, maintain and debug distributed systems, so why go there at all? What a distributed system enables you to do is scale horizontally. Going back to our previous example of the single database server, the only way to handle more traffic would be to upgrade the hardware the database is running on.

This is called scaling vertically. Scaling vertically is all well and good while you can, but after a certain point you will see that even the best hardware is not sufficient for enough traffic, not to mention impractical to host. Scaling horizontally simply means adding more computers rather than upgrading the hardware of a single one.

It is significantly cheaper than vertical scaling after a certain threshold but that is not its main case for preference. These capabilities prove to be insufficient for technological companies with moderate to big workloads. The best thing about horizontal scaling is that you have no cap on how much you can scale — whenever performance degrades you simply add another machine, up to infinity potentially. Easy scaling is not the only benefit you get from distributed systems. Fault tolerance and low latency are also equally as important. Fault Tolerance — a cluster of ten machines across two data centers is inherently more fault-tolerant than a single machine.

Even if one data center catches on fire, your application would still work. Low Latency — The time for a network packet to travel the world is physically bounded by the speed of light. Distributed systems allow you to have a node in both cities, allowing traffic to hit the node that is closest to it. For a distributed system to work, though, you need the software running on those machines to be specifically designed for running on multiple computers at the same time and handling the problems that come along with it.

This turns out to be no easy feat. Imagine that our web application got insanely popular. Imagine also that our database started getting twice as much queries per second as it can handle. Your application would immediately start to decline in performance and this would get noticed by your users.

In a typical web application you normally read information much more frequently than you insert new information or modify old one. There is a way to increase read performance and that is by the so-called Master-Slave Replication strategy. Here, you create two new database servers which sync up with the main one. The catch is that you can only read from these new instances. Whenever you insert or modify information — you talk to the master database.

It, in turn, asynchronously informs the slaves of the change and they save it as well. Propagating the new information from the master to the slave does not happen instantaneously. There actually exists a time window in which you can fetch stale information. If this were not the case, your write performance would suffer, as it would have to synchronously wait for the data to be propagated.

Distributed systems come with a handful of trade-offs. This particular issue is one you will have to live with if you want to adequately scale. Using the slave database approach, we can horizontally scale our read traffic up to some extent. We simply need to split our write traffic into multiple servers as one is not able to handle it. One way is to go with a multi-master replication strategy.

There, instead of slaves that you can only read from, you have multiple master nodes which support reads and writes. Unfortunately, this gets complicated real quick as you now have the ability to create conflicts e. With sharding you split your server into multiple smaller servers, called shards. These shards all hold different records — you create a rule as to what kind of records go into which shard. It is very important to create the rule such that the data gets spread in an uniform way. A possible approach to this is to define ranges according to some information about a record e.

This sharding key should be chosen very carefully, as the load is not always equal based on arbitrary columns. A single shard that receives more requests than others is called a hot spot and must be avoided. To keep our example simple, assume our client the Rails app knows which database to use for each record. It is also worth noting that there are many strategies for sharding and this is a simple example to illustrate the concept.

We have won quite a lot right now — we can increase our write traffic N times where N is the number of shards. This practically gives us almost no limit — imagine how finely-grained we can get with this partitioning. Everything in Software Engineering is more or less a trade-off and this is no exception.

Sharding is no simple feat and is best avoided until really needed.

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We have now made queries by keys other than the partitioned key incredibly inefficient they need to go through all of the shards. Even though the words sound similar and can be concluded to mean the same logically, their difference makes a significant technological and political impact. Decentralized is still distributed in the technical sense, but the whole decentralized systems is not owned by one actor. If you think about it — it is harder to create a decentralized system because then you need to handle the case where some of the participants are malicious. This is not the case with normal distributed systems, as you know you own all the nodes.

Note: This definition has been debated a lot and can be confused with others peer-to-peer, federated. Regardless, what I gave you as a definition is what I feel is the most widely used now that blockchain and cryptocurrencies popularized the term.


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We are now going to go through a couple of distributed system categories and list their largest publicly-known production usage. Bear in mind that most such numbers shown are outdated and are most probably significantly bigger as of the time you are reading this. Distributed Data Stores are most widely used and recognized as Distributed Databases. Most distributed databases are NoSQL non-relational databases, limited to key-value semantics. They provide incredible performance and scalability at the cost of consistency or availability.

We cannot go into discussions of distributed data stores without first introducing the CAP Theorem. Proven way back in , the CAP theorem states that a distributed data store cannot simultaneously be consistent, available and partition tolerant. In reality, partition tolerance must be a given for any distributed data store. As mentioned in many places, one of which this great article , you cannot have consistency and availability without partition tolerance.

Think about it: if you have two nodes which accept information and their connection dies — how are they both going to be available and simultaneously provide you with consistency? They have no way of knowing what the other node is doing and as such have can either become offline unavailable or work with stale information inconsistent.

Practice shows that most applications value availability more. You do not necessarily always need strong consistency. These and more factors make applications typically opt for solutions which offer high availability. Such databases settle with the weakest consistency model — eventual consistency strong vs eventual consistency explanation. This model guarantees that if no new updates are made to a given item, eventually all accesses to that item will return the latest updated value.

Examples of such available distributed databases — Cassandra , Riak , Voldemort. Of course, there are other data stores which prefer stronger consistency — HBase , Couchbase , Redis, Zookeeper. I must admit this may be a bit misleading, as Cassandra is highly configurable — you can make it provide strong consistency at the expense of availability as well, but that is not its common use case.

Cassandra uses consistent hashing to determine which nodes out of your cluster must manage the data you are passing in. You set a replication factor , which basically states to how many nodes you want to replicate your data. Regardless, in the distributed systems trade-off which enables horizontal scaling and incredibly high throughput, Cassandra does not provide some fundamental features of ACID databases — namely, transactions.

Database transactions are tricky to implement in distributed systems as they require each node to agree on the right action to take abort or commit. This is known as consensus and it is a fundamental problem in distributed systems.

However, real systems are subject to a number of possible faults, such as process crashes, network partitioning, and lost, distorted, or duplicated messages. This poses an issue — it has been proven impossible to guarantee that a correct consensus is reached within a bounded time frame on a non-reliable network. In practice, though, there are algorithms that reach consensus on a non-reliable network pretty quickly. Cassandra actually provides lightweight transactions through the use of the Paxos algorithm for distributed consensus.

It is the technique of splitting an enormous task e. You split your huge task into many smaller ones, have them execute on many machines in parallel, aggregate the data appropriately and you have solved your initial problem. This approach again enables you to scale horizontally — when you have a bigger task, simply include more nodes in the calculation. An early innovator in this space was Google, which by necessity of their large amounts of data had to invent a new paradigm for distributed computation — MapReduce.

They published a paper on it in and the open source community later created Apache Hadoop based on it. Discussion of a few case scenarios and examples of classification as per the new scheme.

A paper on the structure of families in New Zealand over time has observed that the family is constantly changing and diversifying there. Same-sex couples have been included in the data, but they can be identified as subsets of couple-only and two parent families. Certain types of family that are becoming more prevalent there include one-parent families and couple-only families. Similarly, the sole-parent family can be identified as a subtype of an electron family type II.

Also, for many children, both their natural parents may play a very real part in their lives even if they do not live in the same household. But, counting an individual e. Health has been shown to have multifactorial causation. The family surroundings affect the health of an individual in several ways. Members of a family can be expected to share the risk factors for their health that may arise from various social characteristics of their shared housing, neighborhood, community, society, and culture.

They would also share the positive factors contributing toward good health. All the members of a family living together who share the financial resources of the family unit would also share the risks of ill-health and costs of health care as well as the protection offered by availability of money with the family to tide over health-related issues.

Living in a family would also mean usually exposure to similar dietary behaviors and health-related lifestyles, among the family members. Another important aspect shared would be the healthcare-seeking pattern and preference. The changing dynamics of family composition can have important impact on the protective as well as risk factors influencing health. Thus, an updated definition and classification scheme for types of families serves an important purpose for the practitioners of various medical and social science disciplines in the current times. It is to be expected that the changing societal arrangements in the current times will be a huge challenge for any model of classification of family structure.

On top of that is the challenge to keep the possible classification groups to the minimum possible, so that analysis of the family structure as a factor in health and other outcomes, in future studies, does not become an inordinately complex exercise. While the objective was mainly to redefine keeping the Indian cultural environment in mind, the sheer heterogeneity of the Indian population in terms of sociocultural milieu is immense. The current proposed scheme should generally suffice for use in other countries and cultures, for broadly classifying the family structure. The intricacies and unique scenarios of particular cultures can be taken into account by defining region or culture-specific subtypes of the overall types of family structure defined in the present article.

Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Family Med Prim Care. Rahul Sharma. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Abstract The family is a basic unit of study in many medical and social science disciplines.

Keywords: Classification, definition, family, family structure, types of family. Introduction The family as an integrated and functional unit of society has for a considerable period of time captured the attention and imagination of researchers. Need for Redefining Desai , as cited in Sonawat[ 2 ] defined the family as a unit of two or more persons united by marriage, blood, adoption, or consensual union, in general consulting a single household, interacting and communicating with each other.

Nuances of the Definition The family will comprise of people ordinarily living in the same house, unless work, study, imprisonment, confinement, foreign sojourn, or any other exigencies compel a member to temporarily live away from the shared house. Table 1 The proposed classification of types of family. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Discussion of a few case scenarios and examples of classification as per the new scheme. Changing Family Dynamics in the Current Times A paper on the structure of families in New Zealand over time has observed that the family is constantly changing and diversifying there.

Importance of the Changing Family Dynamics for Health Health has been shown to have multifactorial causation. Concluding Remarks It is to be expected that the changing societal arrangements in the current times will be a huge challenge for any model of classification of family structure. References 1.